As filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission on November 4, 2019

Registration No. 333-_____________

 

 

UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, D.C. 20549

 

 

 

FORM F-1
REGISTRATION STATEMENT
UNDER
THE SECURITIES ACT OF 1933

 

 

 

REEBONZ HOLDING LIMITED

(Exact Name of Registrant as Specified in Its Charter)

 

Cayman Islands   5961   Not Applicable
(Jurisdiction of
Incorporation or Organization)
  (Primary Standard Industrial
Classification Code Number)
  (I.R.S. Employer
Identification Number)

 

c/o Reebonz Limited
5 Tampines North Drive 5
#07-00
Singapore 528548
+65 6499 9469

(Address, including zip code, and telephone number, including area code, of Registrant’s principal executive offices)

 

Puglisi& Associates
850 Library Avenue, Suite 204
Newark, DE 19715
(302) 738-6680

(Name, address, including zip code, and telephone number, including area code, of agent for service)

 

With copies to:

 

David Dinner, Esq.   Ira L. Kotel, Esq.
Dentons Cayman   Brian Lee, Esq.
3rd Floor, One Capital Place   Greg Carney, Esq.
Shedden Road   Dentons US LLP
George Town   1221 Avenue of the Americas
Grand Cayman   New York, NY 10020
Cayman Islands   (212) 768-6700
(345) 745-5000    

 

Approximate date of commencement of proposed sale to the public: As soon as practicable after this registration statement becomes effective.

 

If any of the securities being registered on this Form are to be offered on a delayed or continuous basis pursuant to Rule 415 under the Securities Act of 1933, check the following box. ☒

 

If this Form is filed to register additional securities for an offering pursuant to Rule 462(b) under the Securities Act, check the following box and list the Securities Act registration statement number of the earlier effective registration statement for the same offering. ☐

 

If this Form is a post-effective amendment filed pursuant to Rule 462(c) under the Securities Act, check the following box and list the Securities Act registration statement number of the earlier effective registration statement for the same offering. ☐

 

If this Form is a post-effective amendment filed pursuant to Rule 462(d) under the Securities Act, check the following box and list the Securities Act registration number of the earlier effective registration statement for the same offering. ☐

 

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is an emerging growth company as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act of 1933 (17 CFR §230.405) or Rule 12b-2 of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 (17 CFR §240.12b-2).

 

Emerging growth company ☐

 

If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act.

 

 

 

 

CALCULATION OF REGISTRATION FEE

 

Title of Each Class of Securities to be Registered  Amount to be Registered(1)   Proposed Maximum Offering Price Per Share(2)   Proposed Maximum Aggregate Offering
Price(2)
   Amount of Registration Fee 
Ordinary shares, par value $0.0008 per share (underlying convertible notes)   12,533,423   $6.50(2)  $81,467,249.5(2)  $10,574.45(2)
Ordinary shares, par value $0.0008 per share   2,206,334   $1.335(3)  $2,945,455.89(3)   382.32(3)
Total   14,739,757        $84,412,705.39   $10,956.77 

 

(1)Ordinary shares that may be offered pursuant to this registration statement consist of shares that may be issuable upon conversion of a convertible promissory note issued in a private placement in September 2019. For purposes of estimating the number of ordinary shares to be included in this registration statement, we included (i) 12,533,423 shares, representing 300% of the number of ordinary shares of common stock issuable upon conversion in full of the outstanding convertible promissory notes (utilizing the Alternate Conversion Price included in such note) issued pursuant to that certain Securities Purchase Agreement dated as of September 4, 2019 (without regard to any limitations on conversion) and (ii) 2,206,334 ordinary shares held by current shareholders. Pursuant to Rule 416 of the Securities Act of 1933, this Registration Statement includes an indeterminate number of additional shares as may be issuable as a result of stock splits or stock dividends which occur during this continuous offering.

 

(2)Represents the higher of: (i) the exercise prices of the convertible security and (ii) the offering price of securities of the same class as the common stock underlying the convertible security calculated in accordance with Rule 457(c) under the Securities Act, for the purpose of calculating the registration fee pursuant to Rule 457(g) under the Securities Act.

 

(3)With regard to the securities included hereby, the offering price and the registration fee are estimated pursuant to Rule 457(c) under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, based upon the average high and low prices for the ordinary share of Reebonz Holding Limited, as reported by the NASDAQ Stock Market on October 30, 2019.

 

The Registrant hereby amends this registration statement on such date or dates as may be necessary to delay its effective date until the Registrant shall file a further amendment which specifically states that this registration statement shall thereafter become effective in accordance with Section 8(a) of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, or until the registration statement shall become effective on such date as the Securities and Exchange Commission, acting pursuant to said Section 8(a), may determine.

 

 

 

 

 

 

The information in this preliminary prospectus is not complete and may be changed. The selling shareholders may not sell these securities until the registration statement filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission is effective. This preliminary prospectus is not an offer to sell these securities and we are not soliciting an offer to buy these securities in any jurisdiction where the offer or sale is not permitted.

 

Subject to Completion, dated November 4, 2019

 

PRELIMINARY PROSPECTUS

 

14,739,757 Ordinary Shares

 

This prospectus relates to the (i) 12,533,423 ordinary shares, par value $.0008 per share which may be offered for sale from time to time by the selling shareholders, which are signatories on that certain Securities Purchase Agreement dated September 4, 2019 (and all references in this prospectus to this Securities Purchase Agreement, and the related Registration Rights Agreement and Notes issued in conjunction with this Securities Purchase Agreement, refer to the Securities Purchase Agreement, Registration Rights Agreement and notes, between us and each of the selling shareholders), upon the conversion of $3,750,000 principal amount of the convertible note due July 31, 2020 (using the Alternate Conversion Price set forth in the note), and that may be offered and sold from time to time by the selling shareholders of the convertible note and (ii) 2,206,334 ordinary shares, par value $0.0008 per share which may be offered for sale from time to time by the selling shareholders, including their transferees, pledges or donees or their successors named in this prospectus. We are not selling any shares in this offering. Of the shares being registered, (i) 12,533,423 shares represents 300% of the 4,177,807 shares which are issuable upon conversion of the convertible note issued on September 4, 2019 (using the Alternate Conversion Price contained in the Notes) and 2,206,334 represents shares currently held by additional selling stockholders. We, therefore, will not receive any proceeds from the sale of the shares by the selling shareholders. The selling shareholders may offer all or part of the shares for resale from time to time through public or private transactions, at either prevailing market prices or at privately negotiated prices

 

This prospectus covers any additional shares of common stock that may become issuable by reason of stock splits, stock dividends, and other events described therein. The Notes due on July 31, 2020 were acquired by the selling shareholders in a private placement with us that closed on September 4, 2019. We are registering shares for resale which shall be issued upon conversion of principal (and default interest, if applicable) on $3,750,000 of the total principal amount of the Notes issued to the selling shareholders.

 

Under the registration rights agreement entered into by us and the selling shareholders in connection with the issuance of the Notes, we are required to register for resale 300% of the number of our ordinary shares issuable pursuant to $3,750,000 principal amount of Notes, based upon an “Alternate Conversion Price” (as defined in the Notes) as of the date of filing this registration statement of $0.90. This amount represents a good faith estimate of the maximum number of shares issuable pursuant to $3,750,000 principal amount of the Notes.

 

The selling shareholders may offer their shares from time to time directly or through one or more underwriters, broker-dealers or agents, in the over-the-counter market at market prices prevailing at the time of sale, in one or more privately negotiated transactions at prices acceptable to the selling stockholders, or otherwise.

 

We are registering these ordinary shares for resale by the selling shareholders named in this prospectus, or their transferees, pledgees, donees or assigns or other successors-in-interest that receive any of the shares as a gift, distribution, or other non-sale related transfer. We will not receive any proceeds from the sale of shares by the selling shareholders. These shares are being registered to permit the selling shareholders to sell shares from time to time, in amounts, at prices and on terms determined at the time of offering. The selling shareholders may sell this common stock through ordinary brokerage transactions, directly to market makers of our shares or through any other means described in the section entitled “Plan of Distribution” beginning of page 133. In connection with any sales of ordinary shares offered hereunder, the selling shareholders, any underwriters, agents, brokers or dealers participating in such sales may be deemed to be “underwriters” within the meaning of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended (the “Securities Act”).

 

We will pay the expenses related to the registration of the shares covered by this prospectus. The selling shareholders will pay any commissions and selling expenses they may incur.

 

The ordinary shares, par value $0.0008 per share are currently listed on the NASDAQ Capital Market (the “NASDAQ”) under the symbol “RBZ”. On October 30, 2019, the closing price for the ordinary shares on the NASDAQ was $1.42 per ordinary share.

 

We may amend or supplement this prospectus from time to time by filing amendments or supplements as required. You should read this entire prospectus and any amendments or supplements carefully before you make your investment decision.

 

We are an “emerging growth company” as that term is defined in the Jumpstart Our Business Startups Act of 2012 and, as such, are subject to reduced public company reporting requirements.

 

Our principal executive offices are located at 5 Tampines North Drive, 5, #07-00, Singapore 528548, Telephone No. 65 6499 9469.

 

Investing in our ordinary shares involves risks. See “Risk Factors” beginning on page 12 of this prospectus.

 

Neither the Securities and Exchange Commission nor any state securities commission has approved or disapproved of these securities or passed upon the adequacy or accuracy of this prospectus. Any representation to the contrary is a criminal offense.

 

Prospectus dated [__________], 2019.

 

 

 

 

TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

  Page
PROSPECTUS SUMMARY 1
SELECTED CONSOLIDATED HISTORICAL AND OTHER FINANCIAL INFORMATION 10
RISK FACTORS 12
CAUTIONARY NOTE REGARDING FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS 43
USE OF PROCEEDS 44
DIVIDEND POLICY 44
CAPITALIZATION 45
MANAGEMENT 102
EXECUTIVE COMPENSATION 107
DESCRIPTION OF SECURITIES 113
CERTAIN RELATIONSHIPS AND RELATED PERSON TRANSACTIONS 120
DESCRIPTION OF PRIVATE PLACEMENT AND CONVERTIBLE NOTES MAJOR SHAREHOLDERS 126
SELLING SHAREHOLDERS 127
TAXATION 128
PLAN OF DISTRIBUTION 133
SHARES ELIGIBLE FOR FUTURE SALE 135
SERVICE OF PROCESS AND ENFORCEMENT OF CIVIL LIABILITIES UNDER U.S. SECURITIES LAWS 138
CHANGE IN REGISTRANT’S CERTIFYING ACCOUNTANT 139
LEGAL MATTERS 140
EXPERTS 140
   
INDEX TO FINANCIAL STATEMENTS F-1

 

i

 

 

You should rely only on the information contained in this prospectus, any amendment or supplement to this prospectus or any free writing prospectus prepared by or on our behalf. Neither we, nor the selling shareholders, have authorized any other person to provide you with different or additional information. Neither we, nor the selling shareholders, take responsibility for, nor can we provide assurance as to the reliability of, any other information that others may provide. The selling shareholders are not making an offer to sell these securities in any jurisdiction where the offer or sale is not permitted. The information contained in this prospectus is accurate only as of the date of this prospectus or such other date stated in this prospectus, and our business, financial condition, results of operations and/or prospects may have changed since those dates.

 

Except as otherwise set forth in this prospectus, neither we nor the selling shareholders have taken any action to permit a public offering of these securities outside the United States or to permit the possession or distribution of this prospectus outside the United States. Persons outside the United States who come into possession of this prospectus must inform themselves about and observe any restrictions relating to the offering of these securities and the distribution of this prospectus outside the United States.

 

This prospectus contains references to our trademarks and to trademarks belonging to other entities. Solely for convenience, trademarks and trade names referred to in this prospectus, including logos, artwork and other visual displays may appear without the ® or TM symbols, but such references are not intended to indicate, in any way, that their respective owners will not assert, to the fullest extent under applicable law, their rights thereto. We do not intend our use or display of other companies’ trade name or trademarks to imply a relationship with, or endorsement or sponsorship of us by, any other companies.

 

CONVENTIONS WHICH APPLY TO THIS PROSPECTUS

 

In this prospectus, unless otherwise specified or the context otherwise requires:

 

“$,” “US$” and “U.S. dollar” each refers to the United States dollar; and

 

“S$,” “SGD” and “Singapore Dollar” each refers to the Singapore dollar, the official currency of Singapore.

 

IMPORTANT INFORMATION ABOUT IFRS AND NON-IFRS FINANCIAL MEASURES

 

Reebonz’s audited financial statements and unaudited interim financial statements are prepared in accordance with International Financial Reporting Standards as issued by the International Accounting Standards Board and referred to in this prospectus as “IFRS.” Reebonz refers in various places within this prospectus to EBITDA, Adjusted EBITDA and Adjusted EBITDA Margin, which are non-IFRS measures that are calculated as earnings before interest, tax and depreciation and amortization and more fully explained in “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations of Reebonz—Certain Non-IFRS Measures.” The presentation of this non-IFRS information is not meant to be considered in isolation or as a substitute for Reebonz’s consolidated financial results prepared in accordance with IFRS.

 

FREQUENTLY USED TERMS

 

In this document:

 

“accumulated buyers” means, as of the end of the period specified, the number of total buyers on a cumulative basis since inception.

 

“ateliers” means our team of appraisers, trained gemologists and watch technicians who provide certain services including authentication, valuation and grading services.

 

“AUD” means the legal currency of Australia.

 

ii

 

 

“average GMV per user” represents online transacted GMV for the period divided by the number of total buyers who purchased online during the period (we currently do not track offline orders from buyers using their unique customer identification number), regardless of the order being returned or canceled or discounts and credits being applied.

 

“average order value” or “AOV” represents online transacted GMV for the period divided by the number of online orders from buyers during the period (we currently do not track the number of offline orders), regardless of the order being returned or canceled or discounts and credits being applied.

 

“B2C” means “business to consumer” and refers to business or transactions conducted directly between a company and consumers who are the end-users of its products or services.

 

“B2C Merchandise Business” means our core merchandise sales business, which consists primarily of our B2C “e-tailing” business, through which we sell authentic new and pre-owned luxury goods to buyers through our platform.

 

“B2C Merchant’s Marketplace” means our B2C marketplace which was launched in Singapore in May 2015.

 

“C2C” means “consumer to consumer” and refers to business or transactions conducted directly between consumers of certain products or services.

 

“C2C Individual Seller’s Marketplace” means collectively, our C2C marketplaces, Reebonz Closets and White Glove Service.

 

“Code” means the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended.

 

“Companies Law” means the Companies Law (2018 Revision) of the Cayman Islands.

 

“Core Asia Pacific Market” means a region consisting solely of Singapore, Malaysia, Indonesia, Thailand, the Philippines, Vietnam, Hong Kong, South Korea, Taiwan, Australia and New Zealand, and excluding among others, China, India and Japan.

 

“Exchange Act” means the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended.

 

“€” means Euro, the legal currency of the European Union.

 

“GMV” for a specified period represents gross merchandise value and is an operating metric, which is the total value of online orders placed and offline merchandise sold through our Merchandise Business or our Marketplace Business that are generally initiated through our platform.

 

“HK$” means the legal currency of Hong Kong.

 

“IDR” means the legal currency of Indonesia.

 

“IFRS” refers to International Financial Reporting Standards as issued by the International Accounting Standards Board (IASB).

 

“KRW” means the legal currency of South Korea.

 

“Marketplace Business” or “marketplaces” means collectively, Reebonz’s C2C Individual Seller’s Marketplace and B2C Merchant’s Marketplace.

 

“MYR” means the legal currency of Malaysia.

 

“new buyer” means any unique buyer, as identified by his or her unique customer identification number in Reebonz’s system, who made his or her first online purchase in the specified period (Reebonz currently does not track offline orders from buyers using their unique customer identification number), regardless of the buyer returning or cancelling the order.

 

iii

 

 

“NT$” means the legal currency of Taiwan.

 

“online sales” mean sales made through Reebonz’s online platform, including our websites and mobile application.

 

“Reebonz Closets” means one of Reebonz’s C2C marketplaces, where individual members primarily use Reebonz’s mobile application to sell pre-owned luxury goods directly to other members in the same country.

 

“registered members” means the number of Reebonz accounts that have been registered as of the end of a period.

 

“repeat buyer” means any buyer, as identified by his or her unique customer identification number in Reebonz’s system, who made an online purchase in the specified period and had previously made one or more online purchase through our platform from Reebonz’s inception to the end of the specified period (Reebonz currently does not track offline orders from buyers using their unique customer identification number), regardless of the buyer returning or cancelling the order. A new buyer that makes his or her first purchase and then a repeat purchase during the same period would be considered a “repeat buyer” for such period and would also be considered a “new buyer” for such period.

 

“SGD,” “Singapore dollar” and “S$” mean the legal currency of Singapore.

 

“Singapore” means the Republic of Singapore.

 

“SKUs” mean stock keeping units. For new products sold by Reebonz through our B2C Merchandise Business, a line of products has a single stock keeping unit, while for pre-owned goods sold by Reebonz, or goods sold through our Marketplace Business, each item available for sale has its own unique stock keeping unit. SKU data is presented for the period specified and not as of a specific date.

 

“Southeast Asia” means a region consisting solely of Singapore, Malaysia, Indonesia, Thailand, the Philippines and Vietnam.

 

“THB” means the legal currency of Thailand.

 

“total buyers” for a specified period means, collectively, the unique buyers, as identified by his or her unique customer identification number in Reebonz’s system, who have made online purchases through our platform during the specified period (Reebonz currently do not track offline orders from buyers using their unique customer identification number), regardless of the buyer returning or cancelling the order.

 

“total orders” for a specified period means total online orders (Reebonz currently do not track the number of offline orders), regardless of the order being returned or cancelled.

 

“U.S.” means the United States of America.

 

“U.S. dollar,” “US$” and “$” mean the legal currency of the United States.

 

“White Glove Service” means one of Reebonz’s C2C marketplaces which primarily caters to premium individual sellers, where Reebonz takes pre-owned luxury goods on consignment from individuals and offer them for sale on our platform.

 

iv

 

 

INDUSTRY AND MARKET DATA

 

In this prospectus, we rely on and refers to industry data, information and statistics regarding the markets in which it competes from research as well as from publicly available information, industry and general publications and research and studies conducted by third parties such as data by International Monetary Fund, World Economic Outlook database and Bain & Company (“Bain”). We have supplemented this information where necessary with our own internal estimates and information obtained from discussions with our customers, taking into account publicly available information about other industry participants and our management’s best view as to information that is not publicly available. This information appears in “Prospectus Summary,” “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations,” “Business of Reebonz” and other sections of this prospectus. We have taken such care as we consider reasonable in the extraction and reproduction of information from such data from third-party sources.

 

Industry publications, research, studies and forecasts generally state that the information they contain has been obtained from sources believed to be reliable, but that the accuracy and completeness of such information is not guaranteed. Forecasts and other forward-looking information obtained from these sources are subject to the same qualifications and uncertainties as the other forward-looking statements in this prospectus. These forecasts and forward-looking information are subject to uncertainty and risk due to a variety of factors, including those described under “Risk Factors.” These and other factors could cause results to differ materially from those expressed in the forecasts or estimates from independent third parties and us.

 

v

 

 

PROSPECTUS SUMMARY

 

This summary highlights selected information contained elsewhere in this prospectus. This summary does not contain all of the information you should consider before investing in our ordinary shares. Before making an investment decision, you should read this entire prospectus carefully, especially “Risk Factors” and the financial statements and related notes thereto, and the other documents to which this prospectus refers. Some of the statements in this prospectus constitute forward-looking statements that involve risks and uncertainties. See “Cautionary Note Regarding Forward-Looking Statements” for more information.

 

As used in this prospectus, unless the context otherwise requires or indicates, references to “we,” “us,” “our,” the “Company,” refer to Reebonz Holding Limited and its consolidated subsidiaries, references to “DOTA” refers to Draper Oakwood Technology Acquisition, Inc., a Delaware corporation, that we acquired pursuant to that certain Business Combination Agreement dated September 4, 2018 and consummated on December 19, 2018 among the Company, DOTA Holdings Limited and Reebonz Limited, a Singapore corporation (the “Business Combination”), on a stand-alone basis. In addition, references to Reebonz refer to our wholly owned subsidiary Reebonz Limited, a Singapore corporation on a stand-alone basis.

 

On March 15, 2019, the Company effected a 1-for-8 reverse stock split of our ordinary shares. All share amounts in this prospectus have been retroactively adjusted to give effect to this reverse stock split.

 

On April 15, 2019, the Company effected an underwritten public offering of 2,150,000 ordinary shares and 2,150,000 warrants to purchase ordinary shares at a combined offering price of $5.00 per ordinary share and accompanying warrant. The gross proceeds of the offering were $10.8 million, before deducting underwriting discounts and commissions and other estimated offering expenses. The Company had granted the underwriters a 30-day option to purchase up to 322,500 ordinary shares and/or warrants to purchase up to 322,500 ordinary shares to cover over-allotments, if any. The underwriters exercised the over-allotment of warrants concurrent with the offering and exercised the over-allotment of ordinary shares on April 18, 2019, resulting in gross proceeds of $1.6 million before deducting underwriting discounts and commissions and other offering expenses.

 

On May 2, 2019, the Company received notification from Nasdaq that it had demonstrated compliance with all applicable requirements for initial listing on The Nasdaq Global Market. As a result, the Company’s ordinary shares, which were listed on The Nasdaq Capital Market, were transferred to The Nasdaq Global Market effective with the open of the market on Friday, May 3, 2019.

 

On May 14, 2019, the Company entered into a Warrant Exercise Agreement with certain holders holding an aggregate of 400,000 warrants to purchase ordinary shares of the Company. In exchange for Holders’ agreement to exercise the warrants in cash at the exercise price of $5.00 per Ordinary Share resulting in gross proceeds to the Company of $2,000,000, the Company agreed to issue to Holders a new Ordinary Share purchase warrant initially exercisable into a number of shares equal to 50% of the number of Exercised Warrants exercised, are exercisable at into Ordinary Shares at $6.50 per Ordinary Share.

 

Our Company

 

We believe we are a leading specialist online luxury retailer in our Core Asia Pacific Market. Our Core Asia Pacific Market consists of Singapore, Malaysia, Indonesia, Thailand, the Philippines, Vietnam, Hong Kong, South Korea, Taiwan, Australia and New Zealand, collectively. We make luxury accessible to consumers through our internet platform, which includes localized versions of our website, www.reebonz.com, and our mobile application, complemented by our offline channels. Through our core Merchandise Business, we curate and sell authentic new and pre-owned luxury goods, including handbags, small leather goods and other accessories, shoes, watches and jewelry, from the world’s leading luxury brands. We also provide a marketplace for individuals to sell new and pre-owned luxury goods. We believe our buyer and seller promises, transaction fulfillment services, returns and refunds policies and product authentication capabilities have helped us build a trusted reputation that encourages buyers and sellers to use our platform.

 

The mailing address of Reebonz’s principal executive office is 5 Tampines North Drive 5, #07-00, Singapore 528548 and our telephone number is (+65) 6499 9469.

 

1

 

 

Our Strategy

 

Our goal is to make luxury accessible, build a leading global luxury brand and become the most trusted platform to buy and sell luxury goods. We plan to achieve this goal by implementing the following strategies: (i) enhance and scale our marketplace business; (ii) continue to expand the product categories, brands and number of SKUs available on our platform; and (iii) continue to enhance customer experience and loyalty.

 

Fourth Quarter 2018 and 2019 Developments

 

Business Combination

 

On December 19, 2018, we (f/k/a DOTA Holdings Limited) completed the Business Combination with DOTA and Reebonz pursuant to which DOTA and Reebonz became our wholly-owned subsidiaries. DOTA was a blank check company formed in April 2017 in order to effect a merger, capital stock exchange, asset acquisition or other similar business combination with one or more businesses or entities. We were incorporated in July 2018 solely for the purpose of effectuating the redomestication merger of Reebonz.

 

In the Business Combination:

 

  holders of 184,555 shares of DOTA’s Class A common stock received 184,555 our ordinary shares in exchange for their shares of DOTA common stock;

 

  holders of ordinary and preference shares of Reebonz received 0.56 of our ordinary share in exchange for each ordinary and preference share of Reebonz held by them;

 

  each DOTA Warrant was deemed converted into one SPAC Warrant to purchase our ordinary shares;

 

  DOTA rights to receive a fractional share of DOTA Class A common stock converted into 71,875 of our ordinary shares;

 

  62,500 unit purchase options of DOTA were exchanged for 62,500 unit purchase options of Reebonz Holding Limited that entitle the holders thereof to purchase 62,500 units, each consisting of one and one-tenth ordinary shares and one-half warrant of to purchase our ordinary shares;

 

  Draper Oakwood Investments, LLC, cancelled 89,844 Class F Shares of DOTA, which represented 50% of the Sponsor Shares issued. The remaining 89,844 Class F Shares of DOTA were exchanged for our ordinary shares at an agreed basis of 1:1;

 

  534,195 shares of DOTA Class A common stock were redeemed at a price of $82.30 per share, for a total redemption of $43,962,893;

 

  DOTA’s promissory note was swapped and immediately converted into 11,057 ordinary shares of Reebonz Holding Limited; and

 

  Reebonz Limited’s Convertible Loan was swapped into a Convertible Loan with the Company on a 1:1 basis which in turn, was immediately converted into 18,617 ordinary shares of the Company at an issue price of US$82.16.

 

Upon consummation of the Business Combination, we changed our name to Reebonz Holding Limited.

 

On December 13, 2018 and December 14, 2018, DOTA in connection with the Business Combination with Reebonz pursuant to the Business Combination Agreement by and among the Company, DOTA Holdings Limited (a Cayman Islands exempted company that was renamed “Reebonz Holding Limited” and is now the Company), Reebonz and the certain other parties named therein, entered into separate backstop agreements (the “Backstop Agreements”) with two accredited investors, S4 Limited (“S4”) and Vertex Co-Investment Fund Pte. Ltd. (“Vertex”, and together with S4, the “Backstop Investors”), along with the Company and certain other parties named therein. Pursuant to the Backstop Agreements, S4 acquired 124,875 shares of Class A common stock of DOTA (“DOTA Common Stock”) and Vertex acquired 59,680 shares of DOTA Common Stock for an aggregate total of US$15 million, in each case in open market or in privately negotiated transactions prior to 5:00 pm ET on December 14, 2018 (such shares of DOTA Common Stock acquired by the Backstop Investors, and including the ordinary shares of the Company issued to holders of DOTA Common Stock in connection with the consummation of the Business Combination, the “Backstop Shares”). Each Backstop Investor agreed (i) to vote all of its Common Stock, including any Backstop Shares, that it owns as of the record date for the Special Meeting, in favor of the Business Combination and each of the other proposals of DOTA to be voted on at the Special Meeting that are required for the Closing, and (ii) to refrain from exercising any rights that such investor may have to redeem or convert any Common Stock that it owns, including any Backstop Shares.

 

2

 

 

In consideration for the agreement of the Backstop Investors, Reebonz agreed (i) to issue to the Backstop Investors ordinary shares (the “Additional Shares”) at the rate of 0.25 shares for each Backstop Share purchased and not redeemed, and (ii) to register the resale of such Additional Shares (and any Backstop Shares that may be deemed to be held by an affiliate of the Company) pursuant to the Securities Act of 1933. In addition, the parties agreed that the Backstop Shares (which, upon the Closing, became ordinary shares of the Company) and, when registered, the Additional Shares (which, upon the Closing, became ordinary shares of the Company), will be sold in market transactions during the 90-day period following the Closing (which 90 day period may be shortened to up to 60 days by the Company), subject to certain volume and sale limitations. Any shares not sold in the open market during the period will be purchased by the Company at the end of the period. Under certain circumstances, the Company may be required during such 90-day period (the “Resale Period”) to purchase certain of the securities held by the Backstop Investors. In the event that the aggregate proceeds from such sales, including the Additional Shares, are less than 110% of the aggregate amount paid by the applicable Backstop Investor for the Backstop Shares, the Company agreed to pay to such Backstop Investor the difference in cash (the “Guaranty Obligation”).

 

On February 26, 2019, we entered into an amendment of our Backstop Agreement with S4 such that, (i) the Resale Period with respect to S4’s Backstop Shares has been extended by 90 days and may be extended by an additional 90 days, and (ii) proceeds from the sale of the Backstop Shares deposited into the escrow account may be distributed to S4 and the Company prior to the end of the Resale Period. On March 14, 2019, we entered into an amendment of our Backstop Agreement with Vertex to (i) extend the Resale Period by 45 days, which may be further extended upon written agreement between us and Vertex, and (ii) to provide for distribution of proceeds to Vertex and the Company prior to the end of the Resale Period. To date, there have been no sales of Backstop Shares by Vertex.

 

Effective upon the closing of the Business Combination, the Company and Reebonz Limited acknowledge and agree that, notwithstanding the holdback provision in the Business Combination Agreement relating to the holdback of certain shares for indemnity purposes (the “Holdback Shares”), the Holdback Shares were issued to the former Reebonz Limited shareholders in connection with the closing of the Business Combination. Furthermore, they waived any right and release any claim that they may have to the Holdback Shares on the condition that the former Reebonz Limited shareholders satisfy any indemnity claim made under the Business Combination Agreement.

 

NASDAQ Matters

 

Our ordinary shares are traded on NASDAQ under the symbol “RBZ.” On December 20, 2018, we received a notice from the Staff of the Listing Qualifications Department (the “Staff”) of The Nasdaq Stock Market LLC (“Nasdaq”) indicating that, based upon the Staff’s determination, the Company has not evidenced compliance with the initial listing standards that require stockholders’ equity of at least $4 million under Listing Rule 5505(b). Additionally, the Company has not demonstrated that the ordinary shares have at least 300 Round Lot Holders as required by Listing Rule 5505(a)(3), and that the warrant has at least 400 Round Lot Holders as required by Listing Rule 5515(a)(4). In addition, for initial listing of a warrant, Listing Rule 5515(a)(2) requires that the underlying security be listed on Nasdaq. The Company’s ordinary shares and warrants may be subject to delisting from The Nasdaq Capital Market unless the Company timely requests a hearing before a Nasdaq Hearings Panel (the “Panel”). The Company has appealed Nasdaq’s determination and on January 24, 2019, the Company attended a hearing before the Panel, which has stayed the suspension of the Company’s securities pending a decision from the Panel whether to grant the Company a time extension to meet Nasdaq’s listing standards. On February 25, 2019, the Panel determined to grant our request for continued listing subject to us meeting the Nasdaq’s listing requirements for common equity by March 29, 2019. The Panel determined to delist our warrants, effective at the open of trading on February 27, 2019. On March 29, 2019 we wrote to the Panel to request a second extension to comply with the listing standards of Nasdaq by April 19, 2019. On April 8, 2019, the Panel accepted the Company’s request for an extension to April 19, 2019. In the interim, the Company’s ordinary shares continues to trade on The Nasdaq Capital Market under the trading symbol “RBZ” respectively. The SPAC Warrants trade on the over-the-counter market under the symbol “RBZW.”

 

On May 2, 2019, the Company received notification from Nasdaq that it had demonstrated compliance with all applicable requirements for initial listing on The Nasdaq Global Market. As a result, the Company’s ordinary shares, which were listed on The Nasdaq Capital Market, were transferred to The Nasdaq Global Market effective with the open of the market on Friday, May 3, 2019. The SPAC Warrants continue to trade on the over-the-counter market under the symbol “RBZW.”

 

On September 5, 2019, Reebonz Holding Limited (the “Company”) issued a press release announcing that the Company has received written notification from The Nasdaq Stock Market LLC that the Company did not meet the continued listing requirements of maintaining a minimum Market Value of Publicly Held Shares for the Nasdaq Global Market, as set forth in the Nasdaq Listing Rule 5450(b)(3)(C) because the market value of the Company’s publicly held ordinary shares for the last 30 consecutive business days was below the minimum MVPHS requirement of US$15,000,000. Pursuant to Rule 5810(c)(3)(D) of the Nasdaq Listing Rules, the Company has a compliance period of 180 calendar days, or until February 25, 2020 (the "Compliance Period"), to regain compliance with Nasdaq's minimum MVPHS requirement. If at any time during the Compliance Period, the Company's MVPHS closes at US$15,000,000 or more for a minimum of ten consecutive business days, Nasdaq will provide the Company a written confirmation of compliance and the matter will be closed. During the Compliance Period, the Company's ordinary shares will continue to be listed and trade on the Nasdaq Global Market. For further disclosure, see “Risk Factors” on “There can be no assurance that our securities, including our ordinary shares, will continue to be listed on Nasdaq or, if listed, that we will be able to comply with the continued listing standards of Nasdaq, which could limit investors’ ability to make transactions in our securities and subject us to additional trading restrictions.”

 

3

 

 

Reverse Split

 

On February 19, 2019 we held an extraordinary general meeting of our stockholders to authorize the Board of Directors to effect a reverse split of ordinary shares, at an exchange ratio of not less than 1-for-2 and not greater than 1-for-10, to be determined by the Board of Directors in its sole discretion to comply with Nasdaq requirements to maintain the listing of our Ordinary Shares on the Nasdaq Stock Market and, in connection therewith, amend the Company’s Memorandum and Articles of Association to reflect the consolidation of the ordinary shares based on the ratio determined by the Board of Directors. On March 4, 2019 the Board of Directors determined to fix the ratio of the exchange at 1 for 8, effective March 15, 2019.

 

Underwritten Public Offering

 

On April 15, 2019, the Company effected an underwritten public offering of 2,150,000 ordinary shares and 2,150,000 warrants to purchase ordinary shares at a combined offering price of $5.00 per ordinary share and accompanying warrant. The gross proceeds of the offering were $10.8 million, before deducting underwriting discounts and commissions and other estimated offering expenses. The Company had granted the underwriters a 30-day option to purchase up to 322,500 ordinary shares and/or warrants to purchase up to 322,500 ordinary shares to cover over-allotments, if any. The underwriters exercised the over-allotment of warrants concurrent with the offering and exercised the over-allotment of ordinary shares on April 18, 2019, resulting in additional gross proceeds of $1.6 million before deducting underwriting discounts and commissions and other offering expenses.

 

Warrant Exchange Agreement

 

On May 14, 2019, the Company entered into a Warrant Exercise Agreement with certain holders holding an aggregate of 400,000 warrants to purchase ordinary shares of the Company, par value $0.0008 per share, that were offered and sold pursuant to the Company’s registered offering described in the Company’s prospectus filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission pursuant to Rule 424(b)(1) under the Securities Act of 1933 dated April 15, 2019. Pursuant to the Exercise Agreement, in exchange for Holders’ agreement to exercise the Exercised Warrants in cash at the exercise price of $5.00 per ordinary share resulting in gross proceeds to the Company of $2.0 million, the Company agreed to issue to Holders a new Ordinary Share purchase warrant, initially exercisable into a number of shares equal to 50% of the number of Exercised Warrants exercised. The New Warrants have a five year term and are exercisable at into Ordinary Shares at $6.50 per Ordinary Share.

 

Convertible Loan Agreement

 

On September 4, 2019, we entered into a financing transaction for the issuance of a series of senior convertible notes of the Company, in the aggregate original principal amount of $3,750,000 (the “Notes”) pursuant to a Securities Purchase Agreement by and among Reebonz Holding Limited and each of the investors listed on the Schedule of Buyers party thereto (the “Securities Purchase Agreement”). Upon closing of the sale of the Notes (the “Closing”), we received gross cash proceeds of $3.525 million. Roth Capital Partners and Maxim Group LLC acted as placement agents (the “Placement Agents”) in the transaction. We received approximately $3.3 million in net proceeds at Closing, after deducting placement agent fees payable to the Placement Agents and Buyer’s counsel in connection with the transaction. See “Description of Private Placement and Convertible Notes” elsewhere in this prospectus for a further discussion of this transaction and the terms thererof.

 

4

 

 

Implications of Being an Emerging Growth Company and a Foreign Private Issuer

 

We qualify as an “emerging growth company” as defined in the Jumpstart Our Business Startups Act of 2012, or the JOBS Act. As an emerging growth company, we may take advantage of certain exemptions from specified disclosure and other requirements that are otherwise generally applicable to public companies. These exemptions include:

 

  being permitted to provide only two years of audited financial statements, in addition to any required unaudited interim financial statements, with correspondingly reduced “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” disclosure;

 

  not being required to comply with the auditor attestation requirements for the assessment of our internal control over financial reporting provided by Section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002;

 

  reduced disclosure obligations regarding executive compensation; and

 

  not being required to hold a nonbinding advisory vote on executive compensation or seek shareholder approval of any golden parachute payments not previously approved.

 

We may take advantage of these provisions for up to five years or such earlier time that we are no longer an emerging growth company. We would cease to be an emerging growth company upon the earliest to occur of (i) the last day of the fiscal year in which we have more than $1.0 billion in annual revenue; (ii) the date we qualify as a “large accelerated filer,” with at least $700 million of equity securities held by non-affiliates; (iii) the issuance, in any three-year period, by our company of more than $1.0 billion in non-convertible debt securities; or (iv) the last day of the fiscal year ending after the fifth anniversary of the date of the first sale of common equity securities pursuant to an effective registration statement, which occurred on September 15, 2017.

 

We are also considered a “foreign private issuer” and will report under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, or the Exchange Act, as a non-U.S. company with foreign private issuer status. This means that, even after we no longer qualify as an emerging growth company, as long as we qualify as a foreign private issuer under the Exchange Act, we will be exempt from certain provisions of the Exchange Act that are applicable to U.S. domestic public companies, including:

 

  the sections of the Exchange Act regulating the solicitation of proxies, consents or authorizations in respect of a security registered under the Exchange Act;

 

  the sections of the Exchange Act requiring insiders to file public reports of their stock ownership and trading activities and liability for insiders who profit from trades made in a short period of time; and

 

  the rules under the Exchange Act requiring the filing with the Securities and Exchange Commission, or SEC, of quarterly reports on Form 10-Q containing unaudited financial and other specified information, or current reports on Form 8-K, upon the occurrence of specified significant events.

 

We may take advantage of these exemptions until such time as we are no longer a foreign private issuer. We would cease to be a foreign private issuer at such time as more than 50% of our outstanding voting securities are held by U.S. residents and any of the following three circumstances applies: (i) the majority of our executive officers or directors are U.S. citizens or residents, (ii) more than 50% of our assets are located in the United States or (iii) our business is administered principally in the United States.

 

We may choose to take advantage of some but not all of these reduced burdens. We have taken advantage of reduced reporting requirements in this prospectus. Accordingly, the information contained herein may be different from the information you receive from our competitors that are public companies, or other public companies in which you have made an investment.

 

5

 

 

Summary Risk Factors

 

Investing in our ordinary shares entails a high degree of risk as more fully described in the “Risk Factors” section of this prospectus. You should carefully consider such risks before deciding to invest in our ordinary shares. These risks include, among others:

 

  Our independent registered public accounting firm has included an explanatory paragraph relating to our ability to continue as a going concern in its report on our audited consolidated financial statements included in this registration statement;
     
  Our unaudited interim financial statements disclosed in this registration statement has not been subject to any form of assurance, either audit or review, by the Company’s independent registered public accounting firm and as such should be considered with this in mind;

 

  Any harm to our brand or reputation may materially affect our business and results of operations;

 

  If we are unable to manage our growth or execute our strategies effectively, our business and prospects may be materially and adversely affected;

 

  Our limited operating history makes it difficult to evaluate our business and prospects and we may not be able to sustain our historical growth rates;

 

  We have limited control over sellers to our Reebonz Closets and B2C Merchant’s Marketplace Platform;

 

  We have a history of losses, operating losses and negative cash flow from operating activities and we may continue to incur losses and operating losses and experience negative cash flow from operating activities in the future;

 

  We do not have direct contractual or business relationships with industry brand owners except in limited circumstances, and as a result we may face legal risks for potential liability for goods sold by us or individuals or merchants in the marketplaces, outside brand owners’ authorized distribution channels and potential claims related to “parallel import” activities, and we may also face commercial risks from actions by luxury brand owners;

 

  If we fail to manage and expand our relationships with suppliers of luxury goods, or otherwise fail to procure products on favorable terms, our business and growth prospects may be materially and adversely affected;

 

  If counterfeit products are inadvertently sold by us or through our platform, we may be subject to legal claims from brand owners, and our reputation and results of operations could be materially affected;

 

  We may be subject to intellectual property infringement claims, especially claims alleging unauthorized use of brand names or trademarks, which may be expensive to defend and may disrupt our business and operations;

 

  We may not be able to secure trademark registrations, which could adversely affect our ability to operate our business;

 

  Failure to safeguard private and confidential information of our buyers and sellers and protect our network against security beaches could damage our reputation and brand and substantially hard our business and results of operations;

 

  If we fail to manage our inventory effectively, our results of operations, financial condition and liquidity may be materially and adversely affected;

 

  If we are unable to provide a high level of customer service, our business and reputation may be materially and adversely affected;

 

6

 

 

  We use third-party couriers to deliver orders and rely heavily on them for our fulfillment services we provide to buyers and sellers in our online marketplace. Any failure on the part of these couriers to provide reliable services may materially and adversely affect our business and reputation;

 

  Our delivery, return and warranty policies and those of luxury brand owners may adversely affect our results of operations;

 

  If we fail to implement and maintain an effective system of internal control over financial reporting, we may not be able to accurately report our financial results or prevent fraud;

 

  We rely on online sale of luxury handbags for a major portion of our revenue;

 

  A substantial portion of our revenue is derived from luxury goods manufactured by three luxury conglomerates;

 

  Fluctuations in exchange rates between and among the Singapore dollar, the Australian dollar, the Euro, the Hong Kong dollar; the Malaysian ringgit, the Indonesian rupiah, the Korean won, the New Taiwan dollar, the Thai baht and the U.S. dollar, as well as other currencies in which we do business may adversely affect our operating results;

 

  As we expand our business internationally, we will face additional business, political, regulatory, operational, financial and economic risks, any of which could increase our costs and hinder our growth;

 

  Customer behaviour on mobile devices is rapidly evolving, and if we fail to successfully adapt to these changes, our competitiveness and market position may suffer;

 

  Our results of operations are subject to seasonal fluctuations;

 

  We may need additional capital, and financing may not be available on acceptable terms to us, if at all;

 

  Our major shareholders have the ability to significantly influence the outcome of shareholder actions in our company;

 

  We do not have, and may be unable to obtain, sufficient insurance to insure against certain business risks;

 

  The IRS may not agree with the conclusion that we should not be treated as a U.S. corporation for U.S. federal income tax purposes;

 

  We may be a passive foreign investment company, or PFIC, for U.S. federal income tax purposes, which could subject you to significant adverse U.S. federal income tax consequences;

 

  We are subject to extensive government regulation in the countries in which we operate; and

 

  Developments in the social, political, regulatory and economic environment in Singapore, or other countries where we operate, may have a material and adverse impact on us.

 

7

 

 

Corporate Structure

 

The following diagram depicts the organizational structure of Reebonz Holding Limited and its subsidiaries as of the date of this prospectus.

 

 

1. A 51% interest in Reebonz (Thailand) Limited is legally owned by local Thai shareholders, who have assigned their power to direct relevant activities and rights to variable returns to us. As a result, we consolidate Reebonz (Thailand) Limited as a subsidiary. Revenues from Thailand accounted for 1.1% of our revenue in 1H 2019.

 

2. We are entitled to appoint a majority of the board of directors of Reebonz Korea Co., Ltd. We have concluded that we have control over Reebonz Korea Co., Ltd. and its key activities, and own rights to a majority of its variable returns and accordingly we consolidate Reebonz Korea Co., Ltd. as a subsidiary. The remaining interest in Reebonz Korea Co., Ltd. is owned by ISE Commerce Inc. and a number of other shareholders which each own less than 5% of the shares of Reebonz Korea Co., Ltd. Revenues from Korea accounted for 40.1% of our revenue in 1H 2019.

 

Corporate Information

 

We are a Cayman Islands exempted company with operations primarily in Singapore and were incorporated in July 2018 solely for the purpose of effectuating the redomestication merger, which was consummated with Reebonz Limited, a Singapore corporation pursuant to the consummation of the Business Combination on December 19, 2018, at which time we became a public company. Our registered office is located at c/o Dentons, 3rd Floor, One Capital Place, Shedden Road, George Town, Grand Cayman, Cayman Islands. Our principal executive office is located at Tampines North Drive 5, #07-00, Singapore 528548 and our telephone number at this office is (+65) 6499 9469. Our principal website address is www.reebonz.com. We do not incorporate the information contained on, or accessible through, our websites into this prospectus, and you should not consider it a part of this prospectus. Our agent for service of process in the United States is Puglisi & Associates located at 850 Library Avenue, Suite 204, Newark, Delaware 19715.

 

8

 

 

Summary Terms of the Offering

 

The summary below describes the principal terms of this offering. The “Description of Share Capital” section of this prospectus contains a more detailed description of our ordinary shares.

 

Shares Offered for Resale by Selling Shareholders  

Up to 14,739,757 of our ordinary shares of are being offered by the selling shareholders. These shares are issuable upon the conversion of $3,750,000 of the principal amount of the Notes (and if applicable, default interest thereon) at an initial fixed conversion price of $6.50. The Notes provide for an Alternate Conversion Price upon an event of default (as described below under “Description of Private Placement and Convertible Notes” elsewhere in this prospectus). We are also registering ordinary shares held by current stockholders on this registration statement.

     
Offering prices   The shares offered by this prospectus may be offered and sold at prevailing market prices or such other prices as the selling stockholders may determine.
     
Ordinary shares outstanding after this offering:  

20,961,721 ordinary shares (as of November 1, 2019)(1)

     
Dividend Policy   Other than as disclosed elsewhere in this prospectus, we currently expect to retain all future earnings for use in the operation and expansion of our business and do not plan to pay any dividends on our ordinary shares in the near future. The declaration and payment of any dividends in the future will be determined by our board of directors in its discretion, and will depend on a number of factors, including our earnings, capital requirements, overall financial condition, applicable law and contractual restrictions. See “Dividend Policy.”
     
Use of Proceeds   The selling shareholders will receive all of the proceeds from the sale of any ordinary shares sold by them pursuant to this prospectus. We will not receive any proceeds from these sales. See “Use of Proceeds” in this prospectus. See “Use of Proceeds” on page 44 of this prospectus for more information.
     
Market for our Ordinary Shares   The ordinary shares are currently traded on the NASDAQ under the symbol “RBZ.”
     
Risk Factors   Investing in our ordinary shares involves substantial risks. See “Risk Factors” beginning on page 12 of this prospectus for a description of certain of the risks you should consider before investing in our ordinary shares.

 

(1)

The number of ordinary shares to be outstanding after this offering is based on 6,221,964 ordinary shares outstanding as of November 1, 2019 and assumes full conversion of the Notes identified above.  There is no guarantee that the Notes will be converted into ordinary shares, the amount outstanding and does not include warrants to purchase 4,549,040 ordinary shares or options to purchase 321,986 ordinary shares at a weighted average exercise price of  $18.86.

 

9

 

 

SELECTED CONSOLIDATED HISTORICAL AND OTHER FINANCIAL INFORMATION

 

The following selected consolidated statement of profit or loss and other comprehensive loss data for fiscal years 2016, 2017 and 2018 and the selected consolidated statement of financial position data as of January 1, 2017, December 31, 2017, and December 31, 2018 have been derived from our audited consolidated financial statements included elsewhere in this prospectus. Our consolidated statement of profit or loss and other comprehensive loss data for the six months ended June 30, 2018 and 2019 and the selected consolidated statement of financial position data as of June 30, 2019 have been derived from our unaudited condensed interim consolidated financial statements included elsewhere in this prospectus. Our unaudited interim financial statements disclosed in this registration statement has not been subject to any form of assurance, either audit or review, by the Company’s independent registered public accounting firm and as such should be considered with this in mind. The financial data set forth below should be read in conjunction with, and is qualified by reference to, “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” and the consolidated financial statements and notes thereto included elsewhere in this prospectus. Our consolidated financial statements are prepared and presented in accordance with IFRS as issued by the IASB. Our historical results do not necessarily indicate results expected for any future period.

 

Selected Financial Information — Reebonz (in thousands)
Income Statement Data

 

   For the year Ended
December 31
   For the Six Months Ended
June 30
 
   2016   2017   2018   2018   2019 
   USD   USD   USD   USD   USD 
Revenue   128,003    107,739    88,379    44,346    31,123 
Cost of revenue   (95,230)   (77,628)   (66,222)   (32,845)   (23,369)
Gross profit   32,773    30,111    22,157    11,501    7,754 
Fulfillment expenses   (18,882)   (18,175)   (14,917)   (7,666)   (5,303)
Marketing expenses   (9,739)   (7,573)   (5,400)   (2,632)   (1,932)
Technology and content expenses   (5,252)   (4,811)   (3,809)   (1,925)   (1,804)
General and administrative expenses   (15,974)   (11,055)   (11,394)   (4,828)   (6,432)
Government grant   290    167    203    137    93 
Operating loss   (16,784)   (11,336)   (13,160)   (5,413)   (7,624)
Other income   550    415    676    223    622 
Other expenses   (1,157)   (923)   (731)   (328)   (349)
Finance costs   (1,797)   (3,250)   (3,533)   (1,794)   (3,392)
Finance income   35    14    7    4    4 
    (19,153)   (15,080)   (16,741)   (7,308)   (10,739)
Change in fair value of:                         
– convertible preference shares   59,233    70,063    (2,068)   (14,219)    
– Settlement by shares to service providers                   1,802 
Recapitalization expenses           (16,530)        
Profit/(Loss) before tax   40,080    54,983    (35,339)   (21,527)   (8,937)
Income tax expense   (10)   (75)   (116)   (65)   30 
Profit/(Loss) for the year   40,070    54,908    (35,455)   (21,592)   (8,907)
                          
Attributable to:                         
Owners of the Company   40,654    55,365    (35,239)   (21,471)   (8,767)
Non-controlling interests   (584)   (457)   (216)   (121)   (140)
Profit/(Loss) for the year   40,070    54,908    (35,455)   (21,592)   (8,907)
                          
Profit/(Loss) per share ($)                         
Basic, profit/(loss) for the year/period attributable to ordinary equity holders of the parent   51.99*   69.73*   (42.92)   (28.48)*   (3.60)
Diluted, profit/(loss) for the year/period attributable to ordinary equity holders of the parent   (7.89)*   (6.44)*   (42.92)   (3.18)*   (3.46)
Weighted average number of ordinary shares outstanding used in computing                         
Basic earnings per share   782,000    794,000    821,000    754,000    2,434,000 
Diluted earnings per share   2,356,000    2,274,000    2,237,000    2,282,000    2,534,000 

 

* Restated due to reverse stock split.

 

10

 

 

Consolidated statements of financial position data as of June 30 2019, December 31 2018, 2017 and January 1 2017:

 

   1/1/2017   31/12/2017   31/12/2018   30/06/2019 
   USD ’000   USD ’000   USD ’000   USD ’000 
Non-current assets   27,619    37,304    34,718    34,415 
Current assets   45,303    37,704    44,421    19,774 
Cash and cash equivalents   11,926    7,312    2,604    2,509 
Total assets   72,922    75,008    79,139    54,189 
                     
Current liabilities   38,893    44,810    81,506    46,135 
Non-current liabilities   151,270    87,918    19,178    18,966 
Convertible preference shares   123,468    56,854         
Total liabilities   190,163    132,728    100,684    65,101 

 

Other Data:

 

The following table sets forth for the periods indicated; certain selected consolidated financial and other data:

 

   For the Year ended
December 31
   For the Six Months Ended
June 30
 
   2016   2017   2018   2018   2019 
Accumulated buyers   349,880    441,612    523,057    479,532    558,106 
New buyers   92,640    91,732    81,445    37,920    35,049 
Repeat buyers   63,054    54,329    49,932    28,166    25,490 
Total buyers   136,828    131,677    119,659    62,224    55,953 
Total orders   248,800    215,510    198,489    91,184    81,969 
Percentage of total orders placed by repeat buyers   70.3%   64.1%   64.9%   62.6%   62.8%
GMV (USD$, in millions)   247.0    250.1    234.5    126.9    97.6 
AOV (USD$)   568    672    675    738    574 
Average GMV per user (USD$)   1,033    1,099    1,119    1,082    859 
Selected Non-IFRS Financial Data                         
Adjusted EBITDA   (10,264)   (7,668)   (8,345)   (3,511)   (3,924)
Adjusted EBITDA margin   -8.0%   -7.1%   -9.4%   -7.9%   -12.6%

 

11

 

 

RISK FACTORS

 

An investment in our ordinary shares carries a significant degree of risk. You should carefully consider the following risks and other information in this prospectus, including our consolidated financial statements and related notes included elsewhere in this prospectus, before you decide to purchase our ordinary shares. Additional risks and uncertainties of which we are not presently aware or that we currently deem immaterial could also affect our business operations and financial condition. If any of these risks actually occur, our business, financial condition, results of operations or prospects could be materially affected. As a result, the trading price of our ordinary shares could decline and you could lose part or all of your investment.

 

Risks Related to Our Business and Operations

 

Our independent registered public accounting firm has included an explanatory paragraph relating to our ability to continue as a going concern in its report on our audited consolidated financial statements included in this registration statement.

 

Our audited consolidated financial statements were prepared assuming that we will continue as a going concern. However, the report of our independent registered public accounting firm included elsewhere in this prospectus contains an explanatory paragraph on our consolidated financial statements stating there is substantial doubt about our ability to continue as a going concern, meaning that we may not be able to continue in operation for the foreseeable future or be able to realize assets and discharge liabilities in the ordinary course of operations. Such an opinion could materially limit our ability to raise additional funds through the issuance of new debt or equity securities or otherwise. There is no assurance that sufficient financing will be available when needed to allow us to continue as a going concern. The perception that we may not be able to continue as a going concern may also make it more difficult to raise additional funds or operate our business due to concerns about our ability to meet our contractual obligations.

 

Based on current operating plans, assuming the continuation by our bankers to provide access to us to drawdown, roll forward existing short term financing facilities, and access to public market financing, we believe that we have resources to fund our operations for at least the next twelve months, but will require further funds to finance our activities thereafter. We may also consider potential financing options with banks or other third parties.

 

Our unaudited interim financial statements disclosed in this registration statement has not been subject to any form of assurance, either audit or review, by the Company’s independent registered public accounting firm and as such should be considered with this in mind.

 

Any harm to our brand or reputation may materially and adversely affect our business and results of operations.

 

Brand recognition and reputation are invaluable assets in the luxury goods market. We believe that the recognition and reputation of our Reebonz brand among buyers of luxury goods, our suppliers, marketplace merchants and individual sellers have contributed significantly to the growth and success of our business. Maintaining and enhancing such brand recognition and reputation are critical to our business and competitiveness. Many factors, including those beyond our control, are important to maintaining and enhancing our brand. These factors include our ability to:

 

  provide a compelling online buying and selling experience to customers;

 

  maintain the authenticity, quality and diversity of the products it offers in sufficient quantities;

 

  maintain the efficiency, reliability and security of our fulfillment services and payment systems;

 

12

 

 

  maintain or improve buyer satisfaction with our after-sale services;

 

  enhance brand awareness through marketing and brand promotion activities;

 

  preserve our reputation and goodwill in the event of any negative publicity involving our product authenticity and quality, customer service, cybersecurity, data protection, authorization to sell products or other issues affecting it; and

 

  maintain positive relationships with our suppliers, marketplace merchants, individual sellers and other service providers.

 

Any public perception (i) that counterfeit goods, pre-owned goods that are in a worse-than-described condition or unauthorized or stolen goods are sold on our website, (ii) that we, or our third-party service providers, do not provide satisfactory customer service or (iii) that we infringe upon any brand owners’ intellectual property rights could damage our reputation, diminish our brand value, undermine our credibility and adversely impact our business. If we are unable to maintain our reputation, enhance our brand recognition or increase positive awareness of our website, products and services, we may be difficult to maintain and grow our customer base, and our business and growth prospects may be materially and adversely affected.

 

We operate in a competitive environment and may lose market share and customers if we fail to compete effectively.

 

The online luxury goods industry in the Asia Pacific region is competitive. We compete for customers, third-party merchants and individual sellers. Our current and potential competitors include other specialist online luxury retailers, general online retailers, fashion online retailers, luxury brand owners’ online stores, luxury department retailers’ online stores, as well as physical stores that sell luxury goods, including retail stores owned and operated by the brands that we carry. See “Our Business— Competition.” In addition, new technologies may increase or even transform the competitive landscape in the online luxury goods industry. New competitive business models may appear, such as business models based on new forms of social media, and we may not adapt quickly enough, or at all, to changing industry trends.

 

Increased competition may reduce our margins, market share and brand recognition, or result in significant losses. For example, when we set prices, we consider how competitors have set prices for the same or similar products. When they cut prices or offer additional incentives to compete with it, we may have to lower our own prices or offer comparable incentives or risk losing market share. When we have products that do not sell, we often reduce prices to clear inventory. Competitive price reduction on certain luxury items lowers prices and benefits buyers, but in the longer term may hurt the perceived prestige of those luxury goods and dampen consumer interest. In addition, third-party merchants are crucial in broadening our product listings, and we compete with other companies for these sellers.

 

We also compete on the basis of non-price terms. For example, in our B2C Merchandise Business, we offer free international shipping for orders above a certain minimum value and aim to make deliveries within three to seven business days depending on the country of delivery. We plan to employ a variety of strategies to shorten delivery times, such as increased monitoring of third-party courier performance and implementation of a “local sourcing and local sale” model. If these strategies do not succeed, and one or more of our significant competitors manage to shorten delivery times, we may lose any competitive advantage.

 

Some of our current or future competitors may have longer operating histories, greater brand recognition, better supplier relationships and sourcing expertise, including direct relationships with brand owners, larger customer bases or greater financial, technical or marketing resources than we do. Those smaller companies or new entrants may be acquired by, receive investment from or enter into strategic relationships with well-established and well-financed companies or investors which would help enhance their competitive positions. We cannot assure you that we will be able to compete successfully against current or future competitors, and competitive pressures may have a material and adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.

 

13

 

 

If we are unable to manage our growth or execute our strategies effectively, our business and prospects may be materially and adversely affected.

 

Our business has grown substantially since its inception in 2009. We continue to introduce new lines of business and plan to continue to grow our business. Specifically, we launched our Reebonz Closets, a C2C marketplace, in February 2015, our Merchant’s Marketplace, a B2C marketplace, in May 2015, and introduced the “Sell Back” feature in May 2017, “Sell Back Guarantee” feature in May 2018, and “Sell to Reebonz” feature in May 2019. In addition, in the past few years, we have expanded into new markets and increased our product offerings. Expanding our business has entailed and will continue to entail significant risks as we work with new suppliers, expands into new markets and offers new products. As the business grows and our product offerings increase, we will need to continue to work with a large number of merchants and an even larger number of individual sellers efficiently and establish and maintain mutually beneficial relationships with them. We will also need to perform sufficient due diligence and other checks to prevent the sale of counterfeit or unauthorized goods on our platform. To support our growth, we also plan to implement a variety of new and upgraded managerial, operating, financial and human resource systems, procedures and controls. All of these efforts will require significant financial, managerial and human resources. In addition, our number of employees has increased since our inception, and may continue to increase in the future. We cannot assure you that we will be able to effectively manage our growth or to implement desired systems, procedures and controls successfully, particularly as the size of our organization grows, or that our system will perform as expected or that our new business initiatives will be successful. If we are not able to manage our growth or execute our strategies effectively, our growth may be interrupted and our business and prospects may be materially and adversely affected.

 

Our limited operating history makes it difficult to evaluate our business and prospects, and we may not be able to sustain our historical growth rates.

 

We commenced our Reebonz business in May 2009 and have a limited operating history. Since our inception, we have experienced rapid growth in our business. Our revenue was US$88.4 million in 2018. We have incurred losses every year since inception. Our business has undergone significant changes each year since its inception, including through acquisitions and the introduction of new products and services, and therefore our historical growth rate may not be indicative of future performance. We cannot assure you that we will be able to achieve similar results or grow at a similar rate as we have in the past. Growth may slow, revenue may decline and losses may increase for a number of possible reasons, some of which are beyond Reebonz’s control, including decreased consumer spending, greater competition, slower growth of the luxury goods market in the Asia Pacific region, negative perceptions about product quality or authenticity, fulfillment bottlenecks, sourcing difficulties, emergence of alternative business models, changes in government policies, tax policies or general economic conditions. It is difficult to evaluate our prospects, as we may not have sufficient experience in addressing the risks to which companies operating in rapidly evolving markets may be exposed. If our growth rate declines, investors’ perceptions of our business and business prospects may be adversely affected and the market price of our securities could decline. You should consider our prospects in light of the risks and uncertainties that fast-growing companies with a limited operating history may encounter.

 

We have limited control over sellers in our Reebonz Closets and B2C Merchant’s Marketplace platform.

 

In 2015, we started Reebonz Closets, a C2C marketplace, and B2C Merchant’s Marketplace in Singapore. In our Marketplace Business, we do not source goods ourselves and instead provide a platform for sellers and buyers to directly buy and sell goods using our platform. We have limited control over the actions of sellers in our marketplaces and their interactions with buyers. Many of the buyers in our Marketplace Business are our existing customers and any negative experience buying through our marketplaces could adversely impact their trust in our Reebonz brand. For example, sometimes sellers advertising a product on our platform may no longer have the product available for sale. A significant percentage of sellers using our Reebonz marketplace platform may identify buyers and then transact with them outside our platform, thereby avoiding the payment of commissions, which would result in lower revenue and GMV.

 

Furthermore, if any seller on our platform does not control the quality of the goods that we sell, does not deliver the goods on time or at all, delivers goods that are materially different from our description of them, sells counterfeit, unlicensed or stolen goods on our platforms, or sells certain goods in violation of relevant laws and regulations or in violation of brand owners’ distribution restrictions, the reputation of our Marketplace Business and our brand may be materially and adversely affected, and we could face claims that we should be held liable for any losses. Any perception that counterfeit goods are sold on our platform could severely harm our brand and reputation. Third-party sellers may offer certain goods that are the same as, or similar to, the products that we directly offer for sale, thereby competing with our B2C Merchandise Business. In addition, expanding into these new businesses has required, and will continue to require, significant management attention and other resources. In order for our online marketplace to be successful, we must also continue to identify and attract third-party sellers, and we may not be successful in this regard. While every item sold through our C2C Individual Seller’s Marketplace is authenticated by our ateliers, we may still fail to detect some counterfeit goods and we are generally unable to detect stolen goods as there is typically no way to ascertain this.

 

14

 

 

We have a history of losses, operating losses and negative cash flow from operating activities, and we may continue to incur losses and operating losses, and experience negative cash flow from operating activities, in the future.

 

We have incurred significant losses and negative cash flow from operating activities since our inception. In 2017 and 2018, we had negative cash flow from operating activities of US$8.1 million and US$6.5 million, respectively. Our loss for the year in 2018 was US$35.5 million. We cannot assure you that we will be able to generate profits, operating profits or positive cash flow from operating activities in the future or that we will be able to continue to obtain financing (and in particular trust receipt financing, which is our primary source of financing for inventory purchases) on acceptable terms or at all. Our ability to achieve profitability and positive cash flow from operating activities will depend on a mix of factors, some of which are beyond our control, including our ability to grow and retain our buyer and seller base, our ability to secure favorable commercial terms from suppliers, our ability to spot trends in the luxury goods market and manage our product mix accordingly and our ability to expand our new lines of business and offer value-added services with higher profit margins. In addition, we intend to continue to invest heavily in the foreseeable future in order to grow our business in the Asia Pacific online luxury goods market. As a result, we believe that we may continue to incur losses for some time in the future.

 

We do not have direct contractual or business relationships with luxury brand owners except in limited circumstances, and as a result we may face legal risks from potential liability for goods sold by us, or individuals or merchants in our marketplaces, outside brand owners’ authorized distribution channels and potential claims related to “parallel import” activities, and we may also face commercial risks from actions by luxury brand owners.

 

We do not have direct contractual or business relationships with luxury brand owners except in limited circumstances. Instead, we source new luxury goods in our B2C Merchandise Business primarily from authorized distributors and luxury wholesalers in various countries. The contractual arrangements between some luxury brand owners and certain of our suppliers could contain restrictions on the price, geographic region and manner in which goods may be resold. We also source luxury goods through distribution channels outside the control of brand owners, which are often referred to as “parallel imports.” We believe that the import and sale of parallel import goods is generally permitted under the laws and regulations of the primary jurisdictions in which we operate, subject to certain exceptions. If our sourcing from any supplier is in violation of contractual arrangements with brand owners or legal restrictions on parallel import activities, we could be subject to claims of intellectual property rights infringement, tortious interference or inducement of contract breach, among others, and face significant liabilities. Any such perception that we are a parallel importer may undermine our reputation among buyers and sellers of luxury goods.

 

We are also subject to the commercial risks that brand owners may instruct our suppliers not to sell goods to us or may cease selling goods to our suppliers completely or in sufficient quantities to meet our sourcing needs. In particular, brand owners may object to our pricing practices, especially the discounts to the retail prices fixed or suggested by brand owners. If we are successful in increasing the scale of our business and becomes more prominent in the luxury goods industry, the risk that brand owners may take legal or commercial action against us or our suppliers may increase. Any such actions could harm our reputation and adversely impact our product offerings, which could have a material and adverse effect on our results of operations and growth prospects.

 

Authorized distributors and luxury wholesalers have entered into framework supply agreements with us, which contain representations that they are not restricted from selling such goods us and indemnities for losses we suffer or costs we incur in connection with the agreement. We are actively seeking to enter into such agreements with all of our suppliers from which we source new luxury items, but there can be no assurance that such suppliers will agree to the proposed terms. In addition, there can be no assurance that the representations made by our suppliers are accurate, and we may not be able to successfully enforce our contractual rights, including any indemnities, and may need to initiate costly and lengthy legal proceedings to protect our rights. Enforcing our contractual rights under those agreements may require us to incur significant costs and effort, and may divert our management’s attention from day-to-day operations. With our other suppliers that have not entered into any framework supply agreements, we place spot purchase orders, and any contractual rights or other recourse we may have against them in the event their sales to it are in violation of the rights of brand owners are highly limited and unlikely to provide sufficient compensation for any losses we suffer or costs we incur.

 

15

 

 

With respect to our online Marketplace Business, although we plan to implement standard terms and conditions requiring individual sellers and merchants to confirm to us that, among other things, their sale of luxury goods on our platforms is not in violation of any distribution agreements and does not infringe the intellectual property rights of brand owners, there can be no assurance that these confirmations will be accurate, and we may not be able to successfully enforce any contractual rights or other recourse we may have against them in the event such confirmations are not accurate.

 

We have in the past received and may continue to receive claims alleging that sales of luxury goods by us, or individuals or merchants in our marketplaces, are not through brand owners’ authorized distribution channels. In March 2013, November 2015 and in March 2016, we received letters from a brand owner demanding that we cease selling our products and claiming we are not part of its authorized distribution network. Although such allegations and claims have not had a material adverse impact on our business, we might be required to allocate significant resources and incur material expenses to address such claims in the future. Irrespective of the validity of such claims, we could incur significant costs and effort in either defending or settling such claims, which could divert our management’s attention from day-to-day operations. If a successful claim is made against us, we might be required to pay substantial damages or refrain from further sale of the relevant products. Regardless of whether we successfully defend against such claims, we could suffer negative publicity, our reputation could be severely damaged and our product offerings could be significantly reduced. Any of these events could have a material and adverse effect on our business, results of operations or financial condition.

 

If we fail to manage and expand our relationships with suppliers of luxury goods, or otherwise fail to procure products on favorable terms, our business and growth prospects may be materially and adversely affected.

 

For our B2C Merchandise Business, we source substantially all new luxury items from authorized distributors and luxury wholesalers, and we source pre-owned items from individuals, pre-owned luxury goods dealers and auction houses. Maintaining strong relationships with these suppliers is important to the growth of our business. In particular, we depend on our ability to procure products from authorized distributors and luxury wholesalers and, to a lesser extent, brand owners, on favorable pricing terms. In the past, we typically entered into spot purchase orders and did not have long-term arrangements for the supply of products. We are actively seeking to enter into framework supply agreements with all of the authorized distributors and wholesalers that we source new luxury items from. In addition, there is no assurance that all of our relevant suppliers will enter into our standard supply agreements with us or that our efforts to enter into such agreements will not adversely affect our relationships with our suppliers. We may also choose to discontinue our relationship with a supplier that declines to enter into such agreements, which would reduce the pool of suppliers that we source luxury goods from and could materially and adversely affect our business and growth prospects. We cannot assure you that our current suppliers will continue to sell products to us on commercially acceptable terms, if at all. Even if we maintain good relations with our suppliers, their ability to supply products to us in sufficient quantity and at competitive prices may be adversely affected by changes in their relationship with brand owners, economic conditions, labor unrest, regulatory or legal decisions, natural disasters or other contingencies. In addition, it is possible that our Marketplace Business will not be able to retain existing sellers or to attract sufficient new sellers in the future. In the event that we are not able to source luxury goods at favorable prices, our revenue and cost of revenue may be materially and adversely affected. If we are unable to develop and maintain good relationships with suppliers that would allow us to obtain a sufficient amount and variety of luxury merchandise on commercially acceptable terms, it may inhibit our ability to offer sufficient products sought by luxury goods buyers, or to offer these products at competitive prices. Any adverse developments in our relationships with our suppliers, as well as with merchants and individual sellers on our marketplaces, could materially and adversely affect our business and growth prospects.

 

If counterfeit products are inadvertently sold by us or through our platform, we may be subject to legal claims from brand owners, and our reputation and results of operations could be materially and adversely affected.

 

We are subject to the risk that counterfeit goods could be sold through our platform. Although we conduct due diligence on most of our suppliers and have quality control procedures in place to ensure that new luxury goods sold through our B2C Merchandise Business are authentic, we do not authenticate each item that we take in our inventory and sell and therefore rely on suppliers to sell us authentic luxury goods. Although we authenticate pre-owned luxury goods sold by us or through our C2C Individual Seller’s Marketplace (consisting of Reebonz Closets and our White Glove Service), our authentication procedures may not be effective in all circumstances. In addition, we do not authenticate products sold through our B2C Merchant’s Marketplace. Any sale of counterfeit goods through our platform could significantly harm our reputation and could result in brand owners making legal claims against us for infringement of trademark, copyright or other intellectual property rights. From time to time in the ordinary course of our business, buyers, brand owners or other third parties have alleged and may allege that counterfeit products have been sold by us or through our platform. Any perception that our platform may contain counterfeit goods, even without merit, could have a material and adverse impact on our reputation.

 

16

 

 

When we receive complaints or allegations regarding infringement or counterfeit goods, we typically verify the nature of the complaint and the relevant facts. Our procedures could result in delays in de-listing products. In the event that alleged counterfeit or infringing products are listed or sold through our platform, we could face claims relating thereto for alleged failure to act in a timely or effective manner or to otherwise restrict or limit such sales or infringement. We may implement further measures in an effort to strengthen our protection against these potential liabilities, which could require us to spend substantial resources or discontinue certain service offerings. In addition, these changes may reduce the attractiveness of our marketplaces and other services to buyers, sellers or other users. A seller whose content is removed or whose services are suspended or terminated by us, regardless of its compliance with the applicable laws, rules and regulations, may dispute our actions and commence action against us for damages based on breach of contract or other causes of action or make public complaints or allegations. Any costs incurred as a result of liability or asserted liability relating to the sale of unlawful goods or other infringement could harm our business.

 

Companies that operate merchandise sales and online marketplace businesses, particularly those in the Asia Pacific region, have been subject to claims regarding counterfeit goods, and we could be subject to such claims in the future. For example, in January 2015, China’s State Administration for Industry and Commerce accused a major e-commerce company of failing to implement adequate procedures to prevent the sale of counterfeit goods on its platforms, and in May 2015, Kering, owner of Gucci and other luxury brands, filed a claim in U.S. federal court against this major e-commerce company alleging that it profited from the sale of counterfeit goods on its online marketplaces. Manufacturers and distributors of counterfeit goods are also increasingly sophisticated, making their products increasingly difficult to detect as counterfeits. If we were to be held to have sold or facilitated the sale of counterfeit goods, potential legal sanctions may include injunctions to cease infringing activities, rectification, compensation, administrative penalties and even criminal liability, depending on the governing law and the seriousness of the misconduct.

 

We may be subject to intellectual property infringement claims, especially claims alleging unauthorized use of brand names or trademarks, which may be expensive to defend and may disrupt our business and operations.

 

We cannot be certain that our operations or any aspects of our business do not, or will not, infringe upon or otherwise violate trademarks, patents, copyrights or other intellectual property rights held by third parties. We may be subject to legal proceedings and claims relating to the intellectual property rights of others, especially those relating to luxury brand owners’ brand names, logos and trademarks. Although our practice is not to display those brand names, logos and trademarks on our website (except in product photos), we have received complaints in the past that we have displayed certain brand names and trademarks without authorization or in a misleading manner, including from brand owners whose goods have accounted for a significant percentage of our revenues.

 

For example, we received a letter of complaint in June 2012 from the legal counsel of a luxury brand, alleging that we had displayed certain trademarks on our website without authorization and demanding that we cease the sale of its products. We also received a letter of complaint in February 2013 from the legal counsel of a luxury brand alleging that one of our promotional events used certain trademarks without authorization and conveyed a false impression that such event had its endorsement. Based on advice from our intellectual property law counsel, we generally believe that our actions referred to in those letters have not infringed on the brand owners’ rights, and we have responded as such to those letters through our legal counsel. We also have intellectual property rights policies and take-down procedures in place to deal with claims that we believe have merit. However, we cannot assure you that our policies and practices will be successful in averting similar complaints in the future, or that our legal interpretation or other defenses against claims that we believe are without merit will be upheld in a court of law or otherwise successful. Even if none of the claims are successful, defending our rights against such claims could involve significant costs and effort and divert our management’s attention from day-to-day operations. Actively defending against such claims could also lead brand owners to take commercial or other actions against us, such as instructing our suppliers not to sell goods to us or ceasing to sell goods to our suppliers completely or in sufficient quantities to meet our sourcing needs.

 

17

 

 

In addition, other third-party intellectual property may be infringed by our products, services or other aspects of our business. Holders of patents purportedly relating to some aspect of our technology platform or business, if any such holders exist, may seek to enforce such patents against us in the United States or any other jurisdictions. Further, the application and interpretation of patent laws and the procedures and standards for granting patents in certain jurisdictions in which we operate are still evolving and are uncertain, and we cannot assure you that the courts or regulatory authorities would agree with our analysis.

 

If we are found to have violated the intellectual property rights of others, we may be subject to liability for our infringement activities or may be prohibited from using such intellectual property, and we may incur licensing fees or be forced to develop alternatives of our own. For instance, we were alerted in September 2012 by Getty Images, the copyright licensee of certain images we had used on our website, that those images were used without proper licensing and we subsequently paid licensing fees to Getty Images. In addition, we may incur significant expenses, and may be forced to divert management’s time and other resources from our business and operations to defend against these third-party infringement claims. Any ensuing negative publicity may severely damage our brand and reputation, regardless of the merits of the claims. Successful infringement or licensing claims made against us may result in significant monetary liabilities and may materially disrupt our business and operations by restricting or prohibiting our use of the intellectual property in question.

 

Finally, we use open source software in connection with our products and services. Some open source software licenses require users who distribute open source software as part of their software to publicly disclose all or part of the source code to such software and make available any derivative works of the open source code on unfavorable terms or at no cost. Any requirement to disclose our source code or pay damages for breach of contract could be harmful to our business, results of operations and financial condition.

 

We may not be able to secure trademark registrations, which could adversely affect our ability to operate our business.

 

We file trademark applications with the proper authorities in each country in which we operate and will continue to do so if and when we expand into other jurisdictions. Trademark applications where we may file may not be allowed registration, and we may not be able to maintain or enforce our registered trademarks. If there are trademark registration proceedings, we may receive rejections. Although trademark applicants are given an opportunity to respond to those rejections, we may be unable to overcome such rejections. In addition, third parties are given an opportunity to oppose pending trademark applications and to seek to cancel registered trademarks. Opposition or cancellation proceedings may be filed against our applications and/or registrations, and our applications and/or registrations may not survive such proceedings. For example, we received a notice of opposition to our U.S. trademark application number 79189277 relating to the registration of “Reebonz” for, inter alia, business organization and business management of sales of products and services via a global computer network in the field of luxury fashion. The opponent alleges that our registration would result in likelihood of confusion and dilution of the “Reebok” mark. Based on advice from our intellectual property law counsel, we generally believe that such allegations are unfounded and are working with the opponent, through our legal counsel, to address the opponent’s concerns so that our mark can be registered in the U.S. for the aforementioned goods and services. Failure to secure such trademark registrations could adversely affect our ability to operate our business in a specific jurisdiction.

 

18

 

 

Failure to safeguard private and confidential information of our buyers and sellers and protect our network against security breaches could damage our reputation and brand and substantially harm our business and results of operations.

 

An important challenge to the online retail industry in general, and the online luxury retail market in particular, is the safekeeping and secure transmission of private and confidential information. Through third-party cloud computing service providers, we maintain a large database of confidential and private information as a result of buyers of luxury goods placing orders and inputting payment and contact information online, and sellers listing products and accepting payments, all through our website and our mobile application. In addition, we accept a variety of payment methods such as major credit cards networks, bank transfers and third party payment service providers, and online payments are settled through third-party online payment services. We also share certain personal information about our customers with contracted third-party couriers, such as their names, addresses, phone numbers and transaction records in order to facilitate pickups and deliveries. Maintaining complete security for the storage and transmission of confidential information in our system presents us with significant challenges.

 

Given the high monetary value of the luxury goods we carry and the relatively high average net worth of our buyers, safeguarding consumer privacy is essential to maintaining customer confidence. Advances in technology and the sophistication of cyber-attackers, new discoveries in cryptography or other developments could result in a compromise or breach of the technology that we use to protect confidential information, which could lead to third parties illegally obtaining private and confidential information we hold as a result of our customers’ visits to our website and use of our mobile application, which could significantly affect consumer confidence in our platform and harm our business. In a Facebook post in November 2014, a satirical group, SMRT Ltd (Feedback), claimed that the personal data of 400,000 customers from Zalora, 440,000 customers from us and 650,000 records from deal.com.sg, were being peddled. Although we and other retailers have refuted this claim, such report or any similar reports in the future, whether factual or not, could negatively impact consumer perceptions of the safety and security of our platform or online shopping generally as well as our relationships with third parties, such as payment platforms. In addition to external threats, leaks of private and confidential information may result from operational errors. For instance, there have been instances where our staff have inadvertently sent e-mails with information regarding particular customers to the wrong customer. There can be no assurance that similar instances will not occur in the future.

 

In addition, we have limited control or influence over the security policies or measures adopted by third-party providers of online payment services through which our customers may elect to make or accept payments. Any negative publicity on our website’s or mobile application’s safety or privacy protection mechanisms and policies, and any claims asserted against us or fines imposed upon it as a result of actual or perceived failures, could have a material and adverse effect on our public image, reputation, financial condition and results of operations. Any compromise of our information security, or the information security measures of our contracted third-party couriers or third-party online payment service providers, could have a material and adverse effect on our reputation, business, prospects, financial condition and results of operations.

 

Practices regarding the collection, use, storage and transmission of personal information by companies operating over the internet and mobile platforms have recently come under increased public scrutiny in the various jurisdictions in which we and our subsidiaries operate. In addition to already existing stringent laws and regulations in such jurisdictions applicable to the solicitation, collection, processing, sharing or use of personal or consumer information, we may become subject to newly enacted laws and regulations that could affect how we store, process and share data with our customers, suppliers and third-party sellers. Compliance with any additional laws could be expensive, and may place restrictions on the conduct of our business and the manner in which we interact with our customers. Any failure to comply with applicable regulations could also result in regulatory enforcement actions against us.

 

Significant capital, managerial resources and other resources may be required to protect against information security breaches or to alleviate problems caused by such breaches or to comply with our privacy policies or privacy-related legal obligations. The resources required may increase over time as the methods used by cyber-attackers and others engaged in online criminal activities are increasingly sophisticated and constantly evolving. Any failure or perceived failure by us to prevent information security breaches or to comply with privacy policies or privacy-related legal obligations, or any compromise of security that results in the unauthorized release or transfer of personally identifiable information or other customer data, could cause our customers to lose trust in us and could expose us to legal claims. Any perception by the public that e-commerce or the privacy of customer information is becoming increasingly unsafe or vulnerable to attacks could inhibit the growth of online luxury retail and other online services generally, which could have a material and adverse effect on our financial condition and results of operations.

 

19

 

 

If we fail to manage our inventory effectively, our results of operations, financial condition and liquidity may be materially and adversely affected.

 

We take inventory risk in our B2C Merchandise Business, which requires us to effectively manage a large volume of high-value inventory. We depend on our demand forecasts for various kinds of luxury items and the subjective judgments of our merchandising team regarding fashion and style trends to make sourcing decisions and to manage our inventory. Demand, however, can change unexpectedly between the time inventory is ordered and the time by which we intend to sell it. Demand may be affected by changes in consumer tastes, new product launches, changes in product cycles and pricing, product defects and many other factors, and luxury goods buyers may not order products in the quantities that we expect. In such circumstances, given that we do not typically have the right to return unsold items to our suppliers, we may decide to clear our inventory by reducing prices and making sales at a loss. In addition, when we begin selling a new product, it may be difficult to establish supplier relationships, determine appropriate product selection and accurately forecast demand. The acquisition of certain types of inventory may require significant lead time and prepayment that is typically nonrefundable. We are also subject to the risk that our inventory may be lost or damaged in storage or in transit, to the extent that such loss or damage is outside the coverage of our insurance.

 

If we fail to manage our inventory effectively, we may face inventory obsolescence, a decline in inventory value and significant inventory write-downs or write-offs. Such decline in inventory value may be substantial, especially given the high monetary value of the luxury goods we sell. We may be required to lower sale prices or conduct additional marketing activities in order to reduce inventory levels, which may lead to lower margins. High inventory levels may also tie up substantial capital resources, preventing us from using that capital for other purposes. On the other hand, if we underestimate demand for our products, or if our suppliers fail to supply quality products in a timely manner, we may experience inventory shortages and as a result, lost sales and damage to our reputation. Any of the above may materially and adversely affect our results of operations and financial condition.

 

If we are unable to provide a high level of customer service, our business and reputation may be materially and adversely affected.

 

Our ability to ensure an enjoyable, efficient and user-friendly buying and selling experience for customers is crucial to our success. The quality of our customer service depends on a variety of factors, including our ability to continue to offer a wide range of authentic luxury goods at affordable prices, source products to respond to ever-changing buyer demands and preferences, maintain the quality of our products and services, provide a secure and user-friendly website interface and mobile application for our buyers and sellers, and provide timely delivery and pick up and satisfactory after-sales service. If our customers are not satisfied with any aspect of our goods or services, or the prices we offer, or if our internet platform is interrupted or otherwise fails to meet our customers’ requests, our reputation and customer loyalty could be materially and adversely affected.

 

We depend on our customer service center and online customer service representatives to provide live assistance to our buyers and sellers. Each member of our loyalty programs with Reebonz Black or Reebonz Solitaire status, which are the two statuses achievable by members of our loyalty program being earned either by spending beyond certain thresholds, has access to our team of relationship managers and customer service representatives whom he or she can contact for any of his or her customer service needs. If our customer service representatives, including relationship managers, fail to provide satisfactory service, our brand and customer loyalty may be adversely affected. In addition, any negative publicity or poor feedback regarding our customer service may harm our brand and reputation and in turn cause us to lose customers and market share.

 

We also rely on contracted third-party delivery service providers, including global logistics providers and smaller local logistics providers, to pick up and deliver various high-value luxury goods. We also rely on these and other third parties to act as collection locations for our C2C Individual Seller’s Marketplace. If product pick up or delivery is not on time, or if the product is damaged in transit or while held at a collection location, customers’ confidence in our fulfillment capabilities could be diminished, particularly given the high monetary value of the goods sold on our platform. Furthermore, the personnel of contracted third-party delivery service providers act on our behalf and interact with our customers personally. Any failure to provide high-quality services to our customers may negatively impact the experience of our customers, damage our reputation and cause us to lose customers.

 

20

 

 

As a result, if we are unable to continue to maintain our customer experience and provide high-quality customer service, we may not be able to retain existing customers or attract new customers, which will have a material and adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.

 

We use third-party couriers to deliver orders, and rely heavily on them for our fulfillment services we provide to sellers and buyers in our online marketplace. Any failure on the part of these couriers to provide reliable services may materially and adversely affect our business and reputation.

 

We maintain arrangements with 16 third-party logistics providers, including multinational delivery companies and local couriers. We use our services to deliver our products to buyers and pick up goods from individual sellers. In addition, our Reebonz marketplaces, including both the B2C Merchant’s Marketplace and the C2C Individual Seller’s Marketplace, requires us to build and maintain a compelling platform, on which it provides fulfillment services to sellers and buyers. We rely heavily on the third-party couriers to provide pick-up and delivery services, which form an integral part of our fulfillment services.

 

Interruptions to, or failures of the delivery or collection services, could prevent the timely and successful pick-up and delivery of products. We may not be in a position to forestall or minimize the impact of these interruptions or failures, given that we are not in direct control of the third-party couriers. In addition, these interruptions or failures may be due to unforeseen events that are beyond our control or the control of the couriers, such as inclement weather, natural disasters or labor unrest.

 

We also encountered situations in the past where shipments were lost or stolen in transit and in certain cases we may choose not to utilize insurance coverage (such as where we believe paying the claim directly may be more beneficial than paying the deductible and electing to use insurance coverage) to cover losses or such losses may not be covered by insurance. Given the high monetary value of the luxury merchandise we handle, the reliability of third-party courier services and the quality of services they provide are crucial factors that merchants and individual sellers consider when determining whether to do business on our platform, and any mistake or interruption on the part of those couriers could severely dampen their confidence in our services and the Reebonz brand. Relatively small local couriers may be less reliable than long-established multinational delivery companies. For example, if our third-party couriers, especially those relatively small local couriers, fail to comply with applicable rules and regulations in their respective jurisdictions, our fulfillment services may be materially and adversely affected. We may not be able to find alternative delivery companies to provide pick-up and delivery services in a timely and reliable manner, if at all. Delivery of our products could also be affected or interrupted by merger, acquisition, insolvency or shut-down of the delivery companies it engages, especially those local companies with relatively small business scales. If our products are not delivered in proper condition or on a timely basis, or if our fulfillment services are disrupted by service failure of the third-party couriers, our business and reputation could be materially and adversely affected.

 

Our delivery, return and warranty policies and those of luxury brand owners may adversely affect our results of operations.

 

We generally provide free three- to seven-business day shipping for luxury items we directly sells to buyers. We also have adopted buyer-friendly return policies that make it convenient for buyers to return the purchase and obtain a refund. We may also be required by law to adopt new or amend existing return and exchange policies from time to time. Our return policy is even more generous for members of our loyalty programs, Reebonz Black and Reebonz Solitaire. In addition, luxury watches purchased from us come with a one-year warranty. These return, exchange and warranty policies could subject us to additional costs and expenses which may not be offset by increased revenue. Our ability to handle a large volume of returns is unproven. If our return and exchange policy is abused by a significant number of buyers, our costs may increase significantly and our results of operations may be materially and adversely affected. If we revise these policies to reduce our costs and expenses, our customers may be dissatisfied, which may result in loss of existing customers or failure to acquire new customers at a desirable pace, which may materially and adversely affect our results of operations. Some of the new and pre-owned luxury goods we sell may not be covered by the relevant manufacturer’s or brand owner’s original warranty, and such manufacturers or brand owners may refuse to provide replacement, repair, cleaning or other services for goods purchased on our platform. Although we intend to improve our disclosure of this risk to our buyers, we may be subject to consumer claims under applicable consumer protection or other laws and regulations in connection with limitations on manufacturer’s or brand owner’s warranties.

 

21

 

 

If we fail to implement and maintain an effective system of internal control over financial reporting, we may not be able to accurately report our financial results or prevent fraud. As a result, our security holders could lose confidence in our financial and other public reporting, which would harm our business and the trading price of our securities.

 

Until consummation of the Business Combination, Reebonz was not a publicly listed company and we had limited accounting personnel and other resources with which to address our internal controls and procedures. Effective internal control over financial reporting is necessary for it to provide reliable financial reports and, together with adequate disclosure controls and procedures, are designed to prevent fraud. Effective internal controls can be particularly important to preparing consolidated financial results for the company since we operate in multiple markets with varying financial reporting rules and standards, such that it may have to make adjustments to our subsidiaries’ financial results as part of the consolidation process. If in subsequent years we are unable to assert that our internal control over financial reporting is effective, we could lose investor confidence in the accuracy and completeness of our financial reports, which could have a material adverse effect on the price of our securities.

 

Reebonz’s internal controls relating to financial reporting have not kept pace with the expansion of our business. Reebonz’s financial reporting function and system of internal controls are less developed in certain respects than those of similar companies that operate in fewer or more developed markets and may not provide our management with as much or as accurate or timely information. The Public Company Accounting Oversight Board, or PCAOB, has defined a material weakness as “deficiency, or a combination of deficiencies, in internal control, such that there is a reasonable possibility that a material misstatement of the company’s annual or interim financial statements will not be prevented or detected on a timely basis.”

 

In connection with the preparation and external audit of Reebonz’s consolidated financial statements as of and for the years ended December 31, 2017 and 2018, Reebonz and KPMG LLP, independent registered public accounting firm, noted a material weakness in Reebonz’s internal control over financial reporting. The material weakness identified relates to the control environment and risk assessment: due to insufficient accounting resources important to the Company’s compliance with financial reporting requirements of International Financial Reporting Standards (“IFRS”), as issued by the International Accounting Standards Board, and the United States Securities and Exchange Commission (“SEC”), and inadequate oversight and assessment of risks by management that could significantly impact internal control over financial reporting, to ensure accountability for the design, implementation, and performance of controls, including general information technology controls. This material weakness could allow errors to go undetected and resulted in corrected and uncorrected audit misstatements. As a result of the identification of this material weakness, we plan to take measures to remedy this control deficiency. However, we can give no assurance that our planned remediation will be properly implemented or will be sufficient to eliminate such material weakness or that material weaknesses or significant deficiencies in our internal control over financial reporting will not be identified in the future. Our failure to implement and maintain effective internal controls over financial reporting could result in errors in our financial statements that could result in a restatement of our financial statements, cause us to fail to meet our reporting obligations and cause investors to lose confidence in our reported financial information, which may result in volatility in and a decline in the market price of our securities.

 

Our independent registered public accounting firm did not undertake an audit of the effectiveness of Reebonz’s internal controls over financial reporting. Our independent registered public accounting firm will not be required to report on the effectiveness of our internal control over financial reporting pursuant to Section 404(b) of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002 until our annual report on Form 20-F following the date on which we cease to qualify as an “emerging growth company,” which may be up to five full fiscal years following the first sale of common equity securities pursuant to an effective registration statement, which occurred on September 15, 2017. The process of assessing the effectiveness of our internal control over financial reporting may require the investment of substantial time and resources, including by members of our senior management. As a result, this process may divert internal resources and take a significant amount of time and effort to complete. In addition, we cannot predict the outcome of this determination and whether we will need to implement remedial actions in order to implement effective control over financial reporting. If in subsequent years we are unable to assert that our internal control over financial reporting is effective, or if our auditors express an opinion that our internal control over financial reporting is ineffective, we could lose investor confidence in the accuracy and completeness of our financial reports, which could have a material adverse effect on the price of our securities. We will be implementing a number of measures to address the material weakness including: (i) hiring a number of financial reporting and internal control with IFRS and SEC financial reporting expertise, (ii) conducting training for our personnel with respect to IFRS and SEC financial reporting requirements. We intend to remediate material weaknesses in our internal control over financial reporting by the end of 2020.

 

22

 

 

We are an “emerging growth company” and as a result of the reduced disclosure and governance requirements applicable to emerging growth companies, our ordinary shares may be less attractive to investors.

 

We are an “emerging growth company,” as defined in the JOBS Act, and we intend to take advantage of certain exemptions from various reporting requirements that are applicable to other public companies that are not emerging growth companies including, but not limited to, not being required to comply with the auditor attestation requirements of Section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act, reduced disclosure obligations regarding executive compensation in our periodic reports and proxy statements and exemptions from the requirements of holding a nonbinding advisory vote on executive compensation and stockholder approval of any golden parachute payments not previously approved. We cannot predict if investors will find our ordinary shares less attractive because Reebonz will rely on these exemptions. If some investors find Reebonz’s ordinary shares less attractive as a result, there may be a less active trading market for our ordinary shares and our stock price may be more volatile. We may take advantage of these reporting exemptions until we are no longer an emerging growth company. We will remain an emerging growth company until the earlier of (1) the last day of the fiscal year (a) following the fifth anniversary of the completion of our Business Combination on December 19, 2018, (b) in which we have total annual gross revenue of at least $1.07 billion, or (c) in which we are deemed to be a large accelerated filer, which means the market value of our ordinary shares that is held by non-affiliates exceeds $700 million as of the prior June 30, and (2) the date on which it has issued more than $1.0 billion in non-convertible debt during the prior three-year period.

 

We rely on online sale of luxury handbags for a major portion of our revenue.

 

Online sales of luxury handbags have historically accounted for a majority of our revenue. Substantially all of these handbags are designed for and marketed to women, which limits our demographic reach. Our business depends, to a certain extent, on the fashion trends and desirability of luxury handbags. We expect that sales of these products will continue to represent a significant portion of our revenue in the near future. We have increased our offerings to include other product categories, such as a wide array of luxury watches, small leather goods and shoes. We expect to continue to expand our product offerings to diversify our revenue sources in the future. However, our sales of these new products may not reach a level that would substantially reduce our dependence on the sales of handbags. Sales of luxury handbags accounted for more than 70% of our revenue in each of 2017 and 2018. Any event that results in a reduction in our sales of luxury handbags could materially and adversely affect our ability to maintain or increase our current level of revenue and maintain or improve our business prospects.

 

A substantial portion of our revenue is derived from luxury goods manufactured by three luxury conglomerates.

 

In 2017 and 2018, we derived an aggregate of 50% to 60% of our revenue from brands owned by three major luxury conglomerates. Each conglomerate consists of multiple brand owners, and these three conglomerates in aggregate account for more than forty brands. We source luxury goods made by these brand owners primarily from luxury wholesalers and authorized distributors in Europe. We do not have direct relationships with any of these brand owners and therefore do not have explicit permission from these conglomerates or their brand owners to resell their goods. Although none of these conglomerates have taken any action at the conglomerate or parent company level seeking to stop us from selling their products, certain of the individual brand owners within these conglomerates have issued letters alleging intellectual property infringement or asking us to stop selling their products. For example, in March 2013, November 2015, and March 2016 we received letters from a brand owner demanding that we cease selling its products. Although we believe these letters have not affected our ability to source these brands from luxury wholesalers and authorized distributors, if for any reason we were to experience reduced supply of luxury goods produced by the brand owners which are part of these three major conglomerates, or if any of such conglomerates or their brand owners were to take any action to prevent us from acquiring or selling their products, or if demand for the brands produced by these brand owners falls, our business, financial condition and results of operations would be materially and adversely affected.

 

23

 

 

Fluctuations in exchange rates between and among the Singapore dollar, the Australian dollar, the Euro, the Hong Kong dollar, the Malaysian ringgit, the Indonesian rupiah, the Korean won, the New Taiwan dollar, the Thai baht and the U.S. dollar, as well as other currencies in which we do business, may adversely affect our operating results.

 

We operate in various countries in the Asia Pacific region, including Singapore, Australia, Malaysia and Indonesia, among other countries. We make inventory purchases primarily in Euros and U.S. dollars, incurs employee compensation expenses and administrative expenses primarily in Singapore dollars, and incur certain other expenses in various other currencies. We derive a significant portion of our revenue from sales denominated in Singapore dollars as well as in various local currencies other than the Singapore dollar.

 

Recently, currency exchange rates in Asia Pacific and Southeast Asia in particular have experienced volatility, including as a result of volatility in the Chinese Renminbi. For example, the exchange rate for the Chinese Renminbi to the U.S. dollar as of December 31, 2018 was 6.878, and was 6.506 as of December 31, 2017. The Singapore dollar has generally weakened compared to the U.S. dollar in recent years, and in particular in 2015 and 2016. The exchange rate for the Singapore dollar to the U.S. dollar as of December 31, 2016 was 1.447, as of December 31, 2017 was 1.337, and as of December 31 2018 was 1.347.

 

Our margins may be affected and we may otherwise be affected by foreign exchange differences in connection with fluctuations in the value of currencies against the Singapore dollar and managing multiple currency exposures. For example, we must pay fees to convert proceeds in foreign currencies to Singapore dollars. In addition, foreign exchange controls may restrict us from repatriating income earned in certain foreign countries to Singapore. Any such delay in revenue repatriation may cause us to incur losses due to the volatility of these currencies compared to the Singapore dollar. Because we report our results in Singapore dollars, the difference in exchange rates in one period compared to another directly impacts period-to-period comparisons of our operating results. Because currency exchange rates have been especially volatile in the recent past, these currency fluctuations may make it difficult for us to predict our results.

 

Currently, we have not implemented any comprehensive strategy to mitigate risks related to the impact of fluctuations in currency exchange rates. Implementing hedging strategies can prove costly. Even if we were to implement hedging strategies, not every exposure is or can be hedged, and, where hedges are put in place based on expected foreign exchange exposure, they are based on forecasts which may vary or which may later prove to have been inaccurate. Failure to hedge successfully or anticipate fluctuations in the value of currencies and other currency risks accurately could adversely affect our operating results.

 

As we expand our business internationally, we will face additional business, political, regulatory, operational, financial and economic risks, any of which could increase our costs and hinder our growth.

 

We expect to continue to devote significant resources to international expansion in the Asia Pacific region through organic growth. Expanding our business internationally will require considerable management attention and resources and is subject to the particular challenges of operating a rapidly growing business in an environment of multiple languages, cultures, customs and legal and regulatory systems. Entering new international markets or expanding our operations in existing international markets will involve substantial cost, and our ability to gain market acceptance in any particular market is uncertain. There can be no assurance that we will be able to successfully grow our business internationally. For example, we may become subject to risks that it has not faced before or an increase in the risks that we currently face, including risks associated with:

 

  localizing our operations and platform, and gaining customer acceptance;

 

  recruiting and retaining talented and capable management and employees in various countries;

 

24

 

 

  language barrier and cultural differences;

 

  negotiating agreements that are economically beneficial to us and protective of our rights, such as contracting with various third parties for the localization of our services;

 

  competition from home-grown businesses with significant local market share and a better understanding of consumer preferences;

 

  protecting and enforcing our intellectual property rights;

 

  the inability to extend proprietary rights in our brand, content or technology into new jurisdictions;

 

  complying with applicable foreign laws and regulations, such as those relating to intellectual property, privacy, consumer protection, e-commerce, customs and anti-money laundering;

 

  currency exchange rate fluctuations, and foreign exchange controls that might restrict or prevent us from repatriating income earned in foreign countries;

 

  challenges in maintaining internal controls and managing accounting personnel in the countries where we operate;

 

  protectionist laws and business practices that favor local businesses in some countries;

 

  various forms of online fraud, such as credit card fraud;

 

  foreign and local tax consequences;

 

  political, economic and social instability; and

 

  higher costs associated with doing business internationally.

 

Any failure to meet the challenges associated with international expansion could materially and adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.

 

If we are unable to maintain a strong buyer base by offering luxury goods that attract new buyers and repeat purchases from existing buyers, or if we are unable to build and sustain an integrated ecosystem for luxury goods, our business, financial condition and results of operations may be materially and adversely affected.

 

Our future growth depends on our ability to continue to attract new buyers as well as new purchases from existing buyers. More importantly, our future growth also depends on our ability to leverage our platform and build an integrated ecosystem for luxury goods where customers are able to become both buyers and sellers. Ever-changing consumer preferences have affected and will continue to affect the online luxury goods market. We must stay abreast of emerging consumer preferences and anticipate upcoming trends. In addition, maintaining effective marketing is important for our business. We increasingly plan to use technology to enable our systems to make recommendations to buyers based on past purchases or on goods viewed but not purchased. Our ability to make individually tailored recommendations is dependent on our business intelligence system, which tracks, collects and analyzes our customers’ browsing and purchasing behavior, to provide accurate and reliable information. We believe that buyers choose to purchase authentic and quality luxury goods on our platform because we offer a wide selection of goods, and they may choose to shop elsewhere if we cannot match the range of goods or the prices offered by other websites or by physical stores. If buyers cannot find their desired luxury goods on our websites or through our mobile application, they may lose interest in us and visit us less frequently or stop visiting us altogether. Likewise, if our buyer base diminishes, fewer buyers could potentially be converted to sellers on our platform, hindering the growth of our Marketplace Business. It could also cause existing luxury goods sellers in our marketplace to perceive our platform as less valuable and leave our platform. In addition, potential merchants and individual sellers could be deterred from joining us. Sellers may also regard us as less valuable for various other reasons, such as the perceived ineffectiveness of our marketing efforts or the emergence of alternative platforms that charge lower commissions and fees. Any of the above scenarios in turn may materially and adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.

 

25

 

 

If we are unable to conduct our marketing activities in a successful and cost-effective manner, our results of operations and financial condition may be materially and adversely affected.

 

We believe that consistent marketing communication supports our level of sales and brand identity as a trusted name for buying and selling luxury goods. As a result, we have incurred significant expenses on a variety of marketing and brand promotion campaigns, both broad-based and targeted, that are designed to enhance our brand recognition and increase sales. Our brand promotion and marketing activities may not be well received by customers and may not result in the levels of product sales that we anticipate. We incurred USD$7.6 million and USD$5.4 million of marketing expenses in 2017 and 2018, respectively. We expect that we could incur higher amounts of expenses in the foreseeable future, as our customer acquisition cost increases over time as a result of greater competition and market saturation. Marketing approaches and tools in the luxury goods market in the Asia Pacific region are evolving. This further requires us to enhance our marketing approaches and experiment with new marketing methods to keep pace with industry developments and consumer preferences. Failure to refine our existing marketing approaches, failure to introduce new marketing approaches in a successful and cost-effective manner, or failure of our innovative marketing initiatives, such as Reebonz Mobil (a truck that features a mobile luxury goods boutique), to bring about desired results could reduce our market share, cause our revenue to decline and negatively impact our profitability.

 

If our senior management is unable to work together effectively or efficiently, or if we lose their service, our business may be severely disrupted.

 

Our success depends heavily upon the continued services of our management. In particular, we rely on the expertise and experience of Mr. Samuel Lim, our Co-Founder and Chief Executive Officer, and other executive officers. If our senior management cannot work together effectively or efficiently, our business may be severely disrupted. If one or more members of our senior management were unable or unwilling to serve in their current positions, we might not be able to locate an appropriate replacement, if at all, and our business, financial condition and results of operations may be materially and adversely affected. If any member of our senior management joins a competitor or forms a competing business, we may lose customers, suppliers, know-how and key professionals and staff. Our senior management has entered into employment agreements with us, which contain confidentiality and non-competition provisions. There can be no assurance that any such non-competition provision will be enforceable in the Singapore courts. In addition, under these agreements, members of our senior management team can resign by giving us prior notice or through forfeiture of compensation during the notice period in lieu of giving prior notice. We currently do not maintain any insurance coverage for loss of key management personnel. If any dispute arises between our senior management and us, especially one that results in any resignation, we may suffer negative publicity and erosion of investor confidence, and we may have to incur substantial costs and expenses in order to enforce such agreements, or we may be unable to enforce them at all.

 

We depend on talented, experienced and committed personnel to grow and operate our business, and if we are unable to recruit, train, motivate and retain qualified personnel or sufficient workforce while controlling our labor costs, our business may be materially and adversely affected.

 

A fundamental driver of our continued success is our ability to recruit, train and retain qualified personnel with deep experience in the luxury retail industry, particularly in areas of technology, authentication, marketing and operations. For example, we face difficulty recruiting experienced technology personnel, whose responsibility is to design and maintain user-friendly websites and mobile applications.

 

Our senior management and mid-level managers are instrumental in implementing our business strategies, executing our business plans and supporting our business operations and growth. The effective operation of our managerial and operating systems, fulfillment services, customer service centers and other back office functions also depends on the knowledge and diligence of our management and employees. Since the online luxury retail industry is characterized by high demand and intense competition for talent, we can provide no assurance that we will be able to attract or retain qualified staff or other highly skilled employees that we will need to achieve our strategic objectives. We plan to hire additional employees both in our technology department, in order to enhance user experience for all our online touch points, and in our finance department. We have observed an overall tightening of the labor market and an emerging trend of shortage of labor supply and this requires us to be more creative and pro-active in our talent sourcing rather than only depending on traditional recruitment channels. Failure to obtain experienced and dedicated employees may lead to underperformance of these functions and cause disruption to our business. Labor costs in the countries in which we operate have increased with the economic development in the Asia Pacific region. In addition, our ability to train and integrate new employees into our operations may also be limited and may not meet the demand for our business growth in a timely fashion, if at all, and rapid expansion may impair our ability to maintain a dynamic corporate culture. Furthermore, additional employees that we plan to hire may be located at our offices and facilities outside Singapore. As a result, we may have less control over these employees, and we may experience increased difficulty in integrating them into our corporate culture.

 

26

 

 

We depend on our Reebonz ateliers, our in-house team of trained experts, to ensure the authenticity of the luxury goods we carry on our platform. If Reebonz ateliers fail to identify counterfeit goods or it is unable to recruit and train qualified professionals for the atelier team, our business may be materially and adversely affected.

 

We believe that an important measure to maintain buyer confidence in the Reebonz brand is to provide buyers with the assurance that the items they purchase are authentic. Reebonz ateliers, which consist of our in-house team of appraisers, trained gemologists and watch technicians, authenticate all pre-owned luxury goods sold by us or through our C2C Individual Seller’s Marketplace. Each pre-owned item sold through our B2C Merchandise Business and our C2C Individual Seller’s Marketplace is authenticated, appraised, valued and graded by an atelier. Our ateliers also support other areas of our business by, for example, providing authentication services to sellers and buyers using our B2C Merchant’s Marketplace in the event of a dispute.

 

There can be no assurance that Reebonz ateliers will identify all counterfeit goods and not certify such goods as genuine. Any failure by Reebonz ateliers to identify counterfeit goods could significantly harm our reputation and could result in brand owners making legal claims for infringement of trademark, copyright or other intellectual property rights, which in turn could materially and adversely affect our results of operations and prospects. In the event counterfeit goods are sold in our marketplaces, the authentication services we provide may also expose us to a heightened risk of contributory liability compared to other online marketplace operators that do not offer such services. In addition, our atelier team authenticates products sold through our C2C Individual Seller’s Marketplace, consisting of Reebonz Closets and our White Glove Service, which could lead to a backlog if we are unable to increase the size and efficiency of our atelier team as our C2C Individual Seller’s Marketplace grows. In our B2C Merchant’s Marketplace, we do not, except in certain circumstances, authenticate products sold by merchants to buyers, which increases the possibility that counterfeit products could be sold through our platform.

 

Our team of ateliers currently consists of 11 professionals located across our collection spokes. As our business grows, we may need to retain additional ateliers, and we could experience a backlog if we are unable to increase the size and efficiency of our atelier team as our C2C Individual Seller’s Marketplace grows. The market competition for experienced luxury goods authentication professionals is intense, and there is no assurance that we will be able to hire and retain a sufficient number of professionals with the required experience on acceptable terms or that our training programs for new ateliers will be effective. Furthermore, counterfeiters and the products they produce are increasingly sophisticated, such that there can be no assurance that our ateliers will be able to consistently differentiate between authentic and counterfeit goods. If we are unable to grow our team of ateliers at the rate, and with the degree of sophistication, that we expect to require as our business grows, our authentication capabilities could be impacted, which could result in counterfeit or defective products being sold on our platform. Any of the foregoing could have a material and adverse effect on our business, results of operations and prospects.

 

Customer behavior on mobile devices is rapidly evolving, and if we fail to successfully adapt to these changes, our competitiveness and market position may suffer.

 

In line with the significant growth in smartphone usage and the global shift in online activity towards mobile devices, a significant portion of our sales are made through mobile devices. In addition, our Reebonz Closets, which we launched in February 2015, is significantly dependent on our mobile application for a number of its functions, including uploading items for sale and interaction among customers. Use of mobile devices and platforms is relatively new and developing rapidly, and we may not be able to continue to increase the level of mobile access to, and engagement on, our business. The variety of technical and other configurations across different mobile devices and platforms increases the challenges associated with this environment. our ability to successfully expand the use of mobile devices to access our platform is affected by the following factors:

 

  our ability to continue to provide a compelling e-commerce and mobile commerce platform and tools in a multi-device environment;

 

  our ability to successfully deploy and update our application on popular mobile operating systems that we does not control, such as iOS and Android;

 

27

 

 

  its ability to adapt to the device standards used by third-party manufacturers and distributors; and

 

  the attractiveness of alternative platforms.

 

If we are unable to attract significant numbers of new mobile buyers and increase levels of mobile engagement, our ability to maintain or grow our business would be materially and adversely affected.

 

The proper functioning of our information technology platform is essential to our business. Any failure to maintain the satisfactory performance of our website, mobile application and systems could materially and adversely affect our business and reputation.

 

The satisfactory performance, reliability and availability of our technology platform are critical to our success and our ability to attract and retain buyers and sellers of luxury goods and provide superior customer service. Substantially, all of our sales of products are made online through our websites and mobile application, and the fulfillment services we provide to merchants and individual sellers is related to sales of their products through our website and mobile applications. Any system interruptions caused by telecommunications failures, computer viruses, software errors, third party services, cloud computing providers, cyberattack or other attempts to harm our systems that result in the unavailability or slowdown of our websites or mobile application or reduced orders and fulfillment performance could reduce the volume of products sold and the attractiveness of product offerings on our website. Our cloud servers may also be vulnerable to computer viruses, physical or electronic break-ins and similar disruptions, which could lead to system interruptions, websites or mobile application slowdown or shutdown, delays or errors in transaction processing, loss of valuable data or the inability to accept and fulfill orders. In December 2014, we were the victim of a distributed denial of service (DDOS) attack, which overloaded our servers and resulted in approximately three hours of downtime. While we have implemented security measures for DDOS prevention and full-time security monitoring, there can be no assurance that our websites will not be victimized by such attacks in the future. Security breaches, computer viruses, software errors and cyberattacks have become more prevalent in our industry. Because of our brand recognition in the online luxury retail industry in our Core Asia Pacific Market, we believe it is a particularly attractive target for such attacks. We have experienced in the past, and may experience in the future, such attacks and unexpected interruptions. We can provide no assurance that our current security mechanisms will be sufficient to protect our information technology systems from any third-party intrusions, viruses or cyberattacks, information or data theft or other similar activities. Any such future occurrences could reduce customer satisfaction, damage our reputation and result in a material decrease in our revenue. Additionally, we must continue to upgrade and improve our technology platform to support our business growth, and failure to do so could impede our growth. However, we cannot assure you that we will be successful in executing these system upgrades, improvement strategies or updates by our third party technology service providers. In particular, our systems may experience windows of down time during upgrades, and the new technologies or infrastructures may not be fully integrated with the existing systems on a timely and reliable basis, if at all. In October 2012, a system administrator erroneously made a configuration change at the database level, which resulted in approximately 25 hours of downtime for our websites. While we have implemented standard operating procedures to prevent such incidents, there can be no assurance that human error will not result in website downtime or any other technological problems in the future. In addition, we experience surges in online traffic associated with promotional activities and holiday seasons, which could strain our technology platform. During a certain sales event in 2011, our server was unable to handle the volume of traffic to our websites and we experienced three days of downtime as our websites were moved to a dedicated hosting site. While we have implemented procedures to add server capacity prior to such events, there can be no assurance that our servers will not be overloaded in the future due to the popularity of sales events or for any other reason. If our existing or future technology platform does not function properly, it could cause system disruptions and slow response times, affecting data transmission, which in turn could materially and adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.

 

28

 

 

The costs of fulfillment services that we incur may increase, and we may not be able to pass the increased costs on to our buyers and sellers.

 

We provide fulfillment services both in our B2C Merchandise business and in our Marketplace Business. We incur significant costs in providing fulfillment services, such as logistics center labor costs and third-party courier costs. We cannot assure you that these costs will stay at the current level in the future, and if they increase, we may not be able to pass the increased costs on to our buyers and sellers. For example, shipping costs are currently borne by the buyer in our Reebonz Closets and B2C Merchant’s Marketplace, and if one or more of our third-party couriers decide to charge it increased shipping fees, we may decide to absorb the increased cost ourselves in order to stay competitive and retain customers. This may have a material and adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.

 

Uncertainties relating to the growth and profitability of the online luxury goods industry in the Asia Pacific region could adversely affect our revenues and business prospects.

 

We generate substantially all of our revenues from online sales of new and pre-owned luxury goods. While the online retail business has existed in the Asia Pacific region since the 1990s and has flourished in recent years, the long-term viability and prospects of various online B2C and C2C luxury retail business models in the Asia Pacific region remain relatively untested. Reebonz’s future results of operations will depend on numerous factors affecting the development of the online luxury retail industry in the Asia Pacific region, which may be beyond our control. These factors include:

 

  the growth of internet, broadband and mobile penetration and usage in the Asia Pacific region, and the rate of such growth;

 

  the trust and confidence of online luxury retail consumers in the Asia Pacific region, as well as changes in customer demographics and consumer tastes and preferences;

 

  the selection, price and popularity of luxury goods that we and our competitors offer online and offline;

 

  whether alternative retail channels or business models that better address the needs of existing and potential luxury buyers emerge in the Asia Pacific region;

 

  the development of fulfillment, payment and other ancillary services associated with online purchases;

 

  government policies that affect the luxury goods industry, such as tax policies in connection with online sales, luxury goods, or both; and

 

  governmental actions that affect the luxury goods industry, such as the introduction or relaxation of anti-corruption campaigns (similar to the ongoing anti-corruption campaign in China), which could be implemented by countries in which we operate.

 

A decline in the popularity of online shopping in general, or any failure by us to adapt our websites and improve the online customer experience in response to trends and consumer requirements, may adversely affect our revenue and business prospects.

 

The accessories, footwear and apparel industries are heavily influenced by general macroeconomic cycles that affect consumer spending and a prolonged period of depressed consumer spending could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations and financial condition.

 

The accessories, footwear and apparel industries have historically been subject to cyclical variations, recessions in the general economy and uncertainties regarding future economic prospects that can affect consumer spending habits. Purchases of discretionary luxury items, such as our products, tend to decline during recessionary periods when disposable income is lower. The success of our operations depends on a number of factors impacting discretionary consumer spending, including general economic conditions, consumer confidence, wages and unemployment, housing prices, consumer debt, interest and tax rates, fuel and energy costs, taxation and political conditions. A worsening of the economy may negatively affect consumer and wholesale purchases of our products and could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations and financial condition.

 

29

 

 

Any deficiencies in the internet infrastructure of any particular country in which we operate or any disruption in our arrangements with third-party providers of communications and storage capacity could impair our ability to sell products over our website and mobile applications, which could cause us to lose customers and harm our operating results.

 

The majority of our sales of products are made online through our websites and mobile application, and the fulfillment services we provide to merchants and individual sellers are related to sales of their products through our websites and mobile application. Our business depends on the performance and reliability of the internet infrastructure in the Asia Pacific countries in which we operate. The availability of our websites depends on telecommunications carriers and other third-party providers of communications and storage capacity, including bandwidth and server storage, among other things. If we are unable to enter into and renew agreements with these providers on acceptable terms, or if any of our existing agreements with such providers are terminated as a result of our breach or otherwise, our ability to provide our services to our customers could be adversely affected. For example, on July 8, 2015 our website in Hong Kong experienced an outage which lasted approximately two hours, due to communication breakdown between its telecommunications provider and our internet service provider. Service interruptions prevent our buyers and sellers from accessing our websites and mobile application, and frequent interruptions could frustrate them and discourage them from attempting to place orders, which could cause us to lose customers and harm our operating results.

 

If we fail to adopt new technologies or adapt our websites, mobile application and systems to changing customer requirements or emerging industry standards, our business may be materially and adversely affected.

 

To remain competitive, we must continue to enhance and improve the responsiveness, functionality and features of our websites and mobile application. The internet and the online retail industry are characterized by rapid technological evolution, changes in customer requirements and preferences, frequent introductions of new products and services embodying new technologies and the emergence of new industry standards and practices, any of which could render our existing technologies and systems obsolete. Our success will depend, in part, on its ability to identify, develop, acquire or license leading technologies useful in our business, and respond to technological advances and emerging industry standards and practices, such as mobile internet, in a cost-effective and timely manner. The development of websites, mobile applications and other proprietary technology entails significant technical and business risks. We cannot assure you that we will be able to use new technologies effectively or adapt our websites, mobile application, proprietary technologies and systems to meet customer requirements or emerging industry standards. If we are unable to adapt in a cost-effective and timely manner in response to changing market conditions or customer requirements, whether for technical, legal, financial or other reasons, our business prospects, financial condition and results of operations may be materially and adversely affected.

 

Customer growth and activity on mobile devices depends upon effective use of mobile operating systems, networks and standards that we do not control.

 

We have seen an increase in the use of mobile devices by buyers to place orders and by sellers to showcase their products (through, for example, our Reebonz Closets), and we expect this trend to continue. To optimize the mobile shopping experience, we guide our customers to download our mobile application to their devices as opposed to accessing our sites from an internet browser on their mobile device. As new mobile devices and platforms are released, it is difficult to predict the problems we may encounter in developing applications for these alternative devices and platforms, and we may need to devote significant resources to the development, support and maintenance of such applications. In addition, our future growth and our results of operations could suffer if we experience difficulties in the future in integrating our mobile application into mobile devices or if problems arise with our relationships with providers of mobile operating systems or mobile application download stores, if our applications receive unfavorable treatment compared to competing applications on the download stores, or if we face increased costs to distribute or have customers use our mobile application. We are further dependent on the interoperability of our sites with popular mobile operating systems that we do not control, such as iOS and Android, and any changes in such systems that degrade the functionality of our sites or give preferential treatment to competitive products could adversely affect the usage of our sites on mobile devices. In the event that it is more difficult for our customers to access and use our websites or application on their mobile devices, or if our customers choose not to access or to use our websites or application on their mobile devices or to use mobile products that do not offer access to our websites or application, our customer growth could be harmed and our business, financial condition and operating results may be adversely affected.

 

30

 

 

The wide variety of payment methods that we accept subjects us to third-party payment processing-related risks.

 

We accept payments using a variety of methods, including major credit card networks, bank transfers and payment gateways such as Adyen, Alipay and PayPal. For certain payment methods, including credit cards, we pay transaction fees, which may increase over time and increase our operating costs and lower our profit margins. We may also be subject to fraud and other illegal activities in connection with the various payment methods we offer. We also rely on third parties to provide payment processing services. If these service providers fail to provide adequate services or if our relationships with them were to terminate, we and our third party merchants’ ability to accept payments could be adversely affected, and our business could be harmed. One of our payment service providers has experienced a network failure in the past, and we cannot assure you that similar incidents will not occur in the future. We are also subject to various rules, regulations and requirements, regulatory or otherwise, governing electronic funds transfers, which could change or be reinterpreted to make it difficult or impossible for us to comply. If we fail to comply with these rules or requirements, we may be subject to fines and higher transaction fees and lose our ability to accept credit card payments from our customers, process electronic funds transfers or facilitate other types of online payments, and our business, financial condition and results of operations could be materially and adversely affected.

 

Our results of operations are subject to seasonal fluctuations.

 

We experience seasonality in our business, reflecting a combination of traditional retail seasonality patterns and new patterns associated with online luxury retail in particular. Our sales have historically been higher during festive periods, especially the December holiday season, as our business tends to benefit from consumers’ increased leisure time and discretionary spending (as a result of, for example, year-end bonuses). Our sales during the fourth quarter tend to be higher than the other quarters. In addition, certain luxury brand owners and their authorized distributors tend to reduce the retail prices of their luxury goods during end-of-season sales events, and we may be forced to reduce our prices of these goods in order to remain competitive. As a result, our profit margin during such periods may be impacted. Our financial condition and results of operations for future periods may continue to fluctuate. As a result, the trading price of the ordinary shares may fluctuate from time to time due to seasonality.

 

Future strategic alliances, joint ventures, investments or acquisitions may have a material and adverse effect on our business, reputation and results of operations.

 

We have in the past and may in the future enter into strategic alliances or joint ventures with various third parties from time to time to further our business purposes. Strategic alliances or joint ventures with third parties could subject us to a number of risks, including risks associated with sharing proprietary information, non-performance by the counterparty, and an increase in expenses incurred in establishing new strategic alliances or joint ventures, any of which may materially and adversely affect our business. We may have little ability to control or monitor our partners’ actions. To the extent our partners suffer negative publicity or harm to their reputations from events relating to their business, we may also suffer negative publicity or harm to our reputation by virtue of our association with such third parties.

 

In addition, if we are presented with appropriate opportunities, we may invest in or acquire additional assets, technologies or businesses that are complementary to our existing business. Future investments or acquisitions and the subsequent integration of new assets and businesses into our own would require significant attention from our management and could result in a diversion of resources from our existing business, which in turn could have an adverse effect on our business operations. The costs of identifying and consummating investments and acquisitions may be significant. we may also incur significant expenses in obtaining necessary approvals from relevant government authorities. Acquired assets or businesses may not generate the financial results we expect. In addition, investments and acquisitions could result in the use of substantial amounts of cash, potentially dilutive issuances of equity securities, the occurrence of significant goodwill impairment charges, amortization expenses for other intangible assets and exposure to potential unknown liabilities of the acquired business. The cost and duration of integrating newly acquired businesses could also materially exceed our expectations. Any such negative developments could have a material and adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.

 

31

 

 

We may need additional capital, and financing may not be available on terms acceptable to us, if at all.

 

We may, from time to time, require additional cash resources. For example, we use trust receipt loans to fund a portion of our ongoing liquidity requirements. See “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Results of Operations and Financial Condition — Liquidity and Capital Resources.” In the future, to fund our liquidity requirements, acquisitions, marketing efforts or other corporate actions, we may seek to obtain additional credit facilities or offer additional equity or debt securities for sale. The sale of additional equity securities could result in dilution of our existing shareholders. The incurrence of indebtedness would result in increased debt service obligations and could result in operating and financing covenants that would restrict our operations. It is uncertain whether financing, if required, will be available in amounts or on terms acceptable to us, if at all, in the future. Any non-compliance with the terms of our financing agreements in the future could trigger the acceleration of other indebtedness and could make it more difficult and costly to obtain additional financing.

 

Our major shareholders will have the ability to significantly influence the outcome of shareholder actions.

 

Our Co-Founder and Chief Executive Officer, Mr. Samuel Lim, beneficially owns approximately 8.9% of our ordinary shares and voting power. Furthermore, several of our shareholders are entities affiliated with the Singapore Government, namely Vertex Asia Growth Ltd., Vertex Asia Investments Pte. Ltd, Vertex Co-Investment Fund Ptd Ltd, MediaCorp Pte. Ltd. and SGInnovate, collectively beneficially own approximately 11.9% of our ordinary shares. Their voting power gives those shareholders the ability to significantly influence actions that require shareholder approval under the laws of the Cayman Islands, the Articles of Association or NASDAQ requirements, including the election of our board of directors, significant mergers and acquisitions and other business combinations, amendments to the Articles of Association, and amendments to our equity incentive plans.

 

Such concentration of voting control may cause transactions to occur that might not be beneficial to you, and may prevent transactions that would be beneficial to you. For example, such significant shareholders may prevent a transaction involving a change of control of the company, including transactions in which you might otherwise receive a premium for your securities over the then current market price. In addition, our major shareholders are not prohibited from selling a controlling interest in us to a third party and may do so without your approval and without providing for a purchase of your securities.

 

We own less than 100% of the shares in certain of our subsidiaries.

 

We operate our businesses in Korea and Thailand through subsidiaries that are not wholly owned by us. We own, directly or indirectly, 58.4% of Reebonz Korea Co., Ltd. and a legal interest of 49% in Reebonz (Thailand) Limited. Pursuant to a shareholders agreement, we are entitled to appoint the majority of the directors of Reebonz Korea Co., Ltd. Revenues from Korea accounted for 24.7% of our revenue in 2018 (FY 2017 :19.6%). The remaining 51% interest in Reebonz (Thailand) Limited is legally owned by local Thai shareholders who we have entered into loan agreements with and who have assigned their power to direct relevant activities and the right to variable returns to us. Revenues from Thailand accounted for 1.4% of our revenue in 2018 (FY2017: 1.2%). However, to the extent there are disagreements between us and the other holders of equity interests in our subsidiaries regarding the business and operations of these companies, we cannot assure you that we will be able to resolve them in a manner that will be in our best interests. Our partners in our subsidiaries may be unable or unwilling to fulfill our obligations, whether of a financial nature or otherwise; have economic or business interests or goals that are inconsistent with us; take actions contrary to our instructions or requests, or contrary to our policies and objectives; take actions that are not acceptable to regulatory authorities; or experience financial difficulties. Furthermore, there are restrictions on foreign ownership in Thai companies and it is possible that regulatory authorities may challenge our ownership structure for Reebonz (Thailand) Limited and may deem such structure as non-compliant with applicable law. Any dispute or regulatory action that results in our inability to control these entities could result in us having to de-consolidate these entities in our results of operations. Any of the foregoing could have an adverse effect on our business, prospects, financial condition and results of operations. In addition, we may operate our business in other countries using similar arrangements in the future, which could impact our business and expose us to additional risks.

 

32

 

 

We may not be able to prevent others from unauthorized use of our intellectual property, which could harm our business and competitive position.

 

We regard our trademarks, copyrights, domain names, know-how, proprietary technologies, and similar intellectual property as critical to our success, and we rely on a combination of intellectual property laws and contractual arrangements, including confidentiality, invention assignent and non-compete agreements with our employees and others, to protect our proprietary rights. Although we are not aware of any copycat websites that attempt to cause confusion or divert traffic from us at the moment, we may become an attractive target to such schemes in the future because of our brand recognition in the online luxury retail industry in the Asia Pacific region. Despite these measures, any of our intellectual property rights could be challenged, invalidated, circumvented or misappropriated, or such intellectual property may not be sufficient to provide us with competitive advantages. Further, because of the rapid pace of technological change in our industry, parts of our business rely on technologies developed or licensed by third parties, and we may not be able to obtain, or continue to obtain, licenses and technologies from these third parties at all or on reasonable terms. It may be difficult to register, maintain and enforce intellectual property rights in the jurisdictions in which we have operations. Statutory laws and regulations are subject to judicial interpretation and enforcement and may not be applied consistently due to the lack of clear guidance on statutory interpretation. Confidentiality, invention assignment and non-compete agreements may be breached by counterparties, and there may not be adequate remedies available to us for any such breach. Accordingly, we may not be able to effectively protect our intellectual property rights or to enforce our contractual rights. Policing any unauthorized use of our intellectual property is difficult and costly and the steps we take may be inadequate to prevent the infringement or misappropriation of our intellectual property. In the event that we resort to litigation to enforce our intellectual property rights, such litigation could result in substantial costs and a diversion of our managerial and financial resources, and could put our intellectual property at risk of being invalidated or narrowed in scope. We can provide no assurance that we will prevail in such litigation, and even if we do prevail, we may not obtain a meaningful recovery. In addition, our trade secrets may be leaked or otherwise become available to, or be independently discovered by, our competitors. Any failure in maintaining, protecting or enforcing our intellectual property rights could have a material and adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.

 

We do not have, and may be unable to obtain, sufficient insurance to insure against certain business risks. As a result, we may be exposed to significant costs and business disruption.

 

The insurance industry in certain jurisdictions where we operate is not yet fully developed, and many forms of insurance protection common in more developed countries are not available on comparable or commercially acceptable terms, if at all. We do not currently maintain insurance coverage for business interruption, product liability, or loss of key management personnel. We do not hold insurance policies to cover for any losses resulting from counterparty and credit risks and fraudulent transactions, nor for losses from cyberattacks, software failures and data loss. Our lack of insurance coverage or reserves with respect to business-related risks may expose us to substantial losses. As to those risks for which we have insurance coverage, the insurance payouts we are entitled to in case of an insured event are subject to deductibles and other customary conditions and limitations. For instance, we store a large volume of luxury goods in our seven logistics centers throughout the Asia Pacific region, and cannot rule out the possibility that natural disasters, fire or theft would destroy valuable inventory in one or more logistics centers, in which case the damages we suffer may exceed the insurance payouts to which we would be entitled. This, and various other scenarios, if materialized, could materially and adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.

 

33

 

 

We may be the subject of anti-competitive, harassing, or other detrimental conduct by third parties including complaints to regulatory agencies, negative blog postings, negative comments on social media and the public dissemination of malicious assessments of our business that could harm our reputation and cause us to lose market share, customers and revenues and adversely affect the price of our ordinary shares

 

In the future we may be the target of anti-competitive, harassing, or other detrimental conduct by third parties. Such conduct includes complaints, anonymous or otherwise, to regulatory agencies. We may be subject to government or regulatory investigation as a result of such third-party conduct and may be required to expend significant time and incur substantial costs to address such third-party conduct, and there is no assurance that we will be able to conclusively refute each of the allegations within a reasonable period of time, or at all. Additionally, allegations, directly or indirectly against us, may be posted in internet chat-rooms or on blogs or websites by anyone, whether or not related to us, on an anonymous basis. Consumers value readily available information concerning retailers, manufacturers, and their goods and services and often act on such information without further investigation or verification and without regard to its accuracy. The availability of information on social media platforms and devices is virtually immediate, as is its impact. Social media platforms and devices immediately publish the content their subscribers and participants post, often without filters or checks on the accuracy of the content posted. Information posted may be inaccurate and adverse to us, and it may harm our financial performance, prospects or business. Given that the comments and posts on social media also tend to spread broadly and quickly, the harm may be immediate without affording us an opportunity for redress or correction. Our reputation may be negatively affected as a result of the public dissemination of anonymous allegations or malicious statements about our business, which in turn may cause us to lose market share, customers and revenues and adversely affect the price of our securities.

 

Any natural or other disasters, including outbreaks of health epidemics, and other extraordinary events could severely disrupt our business operations.

 

Our operations are vulnerable to interruption and damage from natural and other types of disasters, including earthquakes, fire, typhoons, floods, environmental accidents, power loss, communication failures and similar events. If any natural disaster or other extraordinary events were to occur in the area where we operate, our ability to operate our business could be seriously impaired. Our business could be materially and adversely affected by any outbreak of H7N9 bird flu, H1N1 swine influenza, avian influenza, severe acute respiratory syndrome, or SARS, Ebola virus disease, Middle East respiratory syndrome, or MERS, or another epidemic. Any prolonged occurrence of these adverse public health developments in the Asia Pacific region could severely disrupt our business operations and adversely affect our results of operations. Our operations could also be severely disrupted if our suppliers, buyers and sellers, or business partners are affected by such natural disasters or health epidemics.

 

We may be (or become) classified as a passive foreign investment company, or PFIC, for U.S. federal income tax purposes, which could subject United States investors in our ordinary shares to significant adverse U.S. federal income tax consequences.

 

We will be classified as a “passive foreign investment company,” or “PFIC” if, in the case of any particular taxable year, either (a) 75% or more of our gross income for such year consists of certain types of “passive” income or (b) 50% or more of the average quarterly value of our assets (as determined on the basis of fair market value) held during such year produce or are held for the production of passive income (the “asset test”). No determination has been made as to whether we were a PFIC for a prior taxable period. It is possible that we may become a PFIC for the current taxable year. Because the value of our assets for purposes of the asset test will generally be determined by reference to the market price of our ordinary shares, fluctuations in the market price of our ordinary shares may cause us to become a PFIC for the current taxable year or subsequent taxable years. The determination of whether we will be or become a PFIC will also depend, in part, on the composition of our income and assets, which will be affected by how, and how quickly, we use our liquid assets. Under circumstances where we determine not to deploy significant amounts of our liquid assets for active purposes, our risk of being classified as a PFIC may substantially increase. For this purpose, we will be treated as owning our proportionate share of the assets and earning our proportionate share of the income of any other corporation in which we own, directly or indirectly, 25% or more (by value) of the stock. Because there are uncertainties in the application of the relevant rules and PFIC status is a factual determination made annually after the close of each taxable year, there can be no assurance that we will not be a PFIC for the current taxable year or any future taxable year.

 

If we are classified as a PFIC in any taxable year, a U.S. Holder (as defined in “Taxation — Material United States Federal Income Tax Considerations to U.S. Holders”) may incur significantly increased U.S. income tax on gain recognized on the sale or other disposition of our ordinary shares and on the receipt of distributions on the shares to the extent such gain or distribution is treated as an “excess distribution” under the U.S. federal income tax rules and such holders may be subject to burdensome reporting requirements. Further, if we are classified as a PFIC for any year during which a U.S. Holder holds our ordinary shares, we generally will continue to be treated as a PFIC for all succeeding years during which such U.S. Holder holds our ordinary shares. For more information see “Taxation — Material United States Federal Income Tax Considerations to U.S. Holders — Passive Foreign Investment Company Considerations.”

 

34

 

 

The IRS may not agree with the conclusion that we should not be treated as a U.S. corporation for U.S. federal income tax purposes.

 

For U.S. federal income tax purposes, a corporation generally is considered a U.S. corporation if it is created or organized in the United States or under the law of the United States or of any state thereof or the District of Columbia. Entities treated as U.S. corporations are generally subject to U.S. federal income tax on their worldwide income, and U.S. reporting and withholding tax rules may apply to dividends that they pay. Because we were formed and organized under the law of the Cayman Islands, we would ordinarily not be treated for U.S. federal income tax purposes as a U.S. corporation. Section 7874 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended (“Code”), however, contains special rules that could result in a non-U.S. corporation being taxed as a U.S. corporation for U.S. federal income tax purposes where the corporation, directly or indirectly, re-domiciles from the U.S. to another country.

 

Section 7874 of the Code is generally implicated when a non-U.S. corporation acquires all of the stock of a U.S. corporation. If, immediately after such an acquisition, former shareholders of the U.S. corporation are considered to hold, for purposes of Section 7874 of the Code, 80% or more (by vote or value) of the stock of the acquiring non-U.S. corporation, and certain other circumstances exist, the acquiring non-U.S. corporation will be treated as a U.S. corporation for U.S. federal income tax purposes.

 

The determination of the percentage of stock of the acquiring non-U.S. corporation treated as held by former shareholders of the U.S. corporation for purposes of Section 7874 of the Code, or the “Section 7874 ownership percentage,” is subject to various adjustments and exceptions, and when they apply, generally operate to increase the Section 7874 ownership percentage (and the likelihood that the acquiring non-U.S. corporation will be treated as a U.S. corporation for U.S. federal income tax purposes).

 

In the Business Combination, we acquired DOTA, a U.S. corporation, and Reebonz, a non-U.S. corporation, pursuant to which the shareholders of DOTA received less than 50% of our shares. We believe that the Business Combination does not implicate Section 7874 of the Code. Accordingly, we expect that we will not be treated as a U.S. corporation for U.S. federal income tax purposes.

 

Notwithstanding the foregoing, the determination of the Section 7874 percentage and the application of the various exceptions are complex and subject to factual and legal uncertainties. Moreover, changes to Section 7874 of the Code or the Regulations promulgated thereunder (or other relevant provisions of U.S. federal income tax law), which could be given prospective or retroactive effect, could adversely affect the analysis under Section 7874 of the Code with respect to our status as a non-U.S. corporation for U.S. federal income tax purposes. As a result, there can be no assurance that the IRS will agree with the position that we should not be treated as a U.S. corporation for U.S. federal income tax purposes.

 

The discussion in “Taxation — Material United States Federal Income Tax Considerations to U.S. Holders” assumes that we will not be treated as a U.S. corporation for U.S. federal income tax purposes.

 

We could face uncertain tax liabilities in various jurisdictions where it operates, and suffer adverse financial consequences as a result.

 

We believe we are in compliance with all applicable tax laws in the various jurisdictions where we are subject to tax, but our tax liabilities, including any arising from restructuring transactions, could be uncertain, and we could suffer adverse tax and other financial consequences if tax authorities do not agree with our interpretation of the applicable tax laws. Although we are domiciled in Singapore, we and our subsidiaries collectively operate in multiple tax jurisdictions and pay income taxes according to the tax laws of these jurisdictions. Various factors, some of which are beyond our control, determine our effective tax rate and/or the amount we are required to pay, including changes in or interpretations of tax laws in any given jurisdiction and changes in geographical allocation of income. We accrue income tax liabilities and tax contingencies based upon our best estimate of the taxes ultimately expected to be paid after considering our knowledge of all relevant facts and circumstances, existing tax laws, our experience with previous audits and settlements, the status of current tax examinations and how the tax authorities view certain issues. Such amounts are included in income taxes payable or deferred income tax liabilities, as appropriate, and are updated over time as more information becomes available. We believe that we are filing tax returns and paying taxes in each jurisdiction where we are required to do so under the laws of such jurisdiction. However, it is possible that the relevant tax authorities in the jurisdictions where we do not file returns may assert that we are required to file tax returns and pay taxes in such jurisdictions. There can be no assurance that our subsidiaries will not be taxed in multiple jurisdictions in the future, and any such taxation in multiple jurisdictions could adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations. In addition, we may, from time to time, be subject to inquiries from tax authorities of the relevant jurisdictions on various tax matters, including challenges to positions asserted on income and withholding tax returns. We cannot be certain that the tax authorities will agree with our interpretations of the applicable tax laws, or that the tax authorities will resolve any inquiries in our favor. To the extent the relevant tax authorities do not agree with our interpretation, we may seek to enter into settlements with the tax authorities which may require significant payments and may adversely affect our results of operations or financial condition. We may also appeal against the tax authorities’ determinations to the appropriate governmental authorities, but we cannot be sure we will prevail. If we do not prevail, we may have to make significant payments or otherwise record charges (or reduce tax assets) that could adversely affect our results of operations, financial condition and cash flows. Similarly, any adverse or unfavorable determinations by tax authorities on pending inquiries could lead to increased taxation on us that may adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.

 

35

 

 

We are subject to extensive government regulation in the countries where it operates, including regulations with respect to e-commerce, intellectual property rights, consumer protection and fair trade.

 

We are subject to extensive government regulation in the countries where we operate that cover many aspects of our sales practice. In particular, we are subject to laws relating to e-commerce, intellectual property rights, consumer protection and fair trade in jurisdictions such as Singapore, Australia, Hong Kong, South Korea and Taiwan. We may be subject to regulatory investigations by governmental agencies and may be subject to fines or sanctions by those governmental agencies or other claims from third parties in the event of non-compliance with relevant statutory or regulatory requirements. Any such claims or sanctions, including the costs of settling claims and operational impacts, could materially and adversely affect our business and results of operations. Our business may also be materially and adversely affected by changes in laws or regulations that may be introduced concerning various aspects of our sale practices, including in relation to online content, e-commerce, foreign ownership of internet or retail companies operating in a particular jurisdiction, liability for third-party activities and user privacy.

 

Our business and results of operations are also affected by taxation legislation and other fiscal policies adopted by the governments in the countries where we operate. For example, the sales of stock, financing and administration or management service arrangements between us and our Australian subsidiary must be consistent with the relevant provisions of Australian taxation laws relating to transfer pricing. Future changes in taxation laws or changes in the way in which taxation laws may be interpreted may adversely affect our business, financial position and results of operations.

 

Our only significant asset is our ownership of Reebonz and affiliates and such ownership may not be sufficient to pay dividends or make distributions or loans to enable us to pay any dividends on our ordinary shares or satisfy other financial obligations.

 

We are a holding company and do not directly own any operating assets other than our ownership of interests in Reebonz. We depend on Reebonz for distributions, loans and other payments to generate the funds necessary to meet our financial obligations, including our expenses as a publicly traded company and to pay any dividends. The earnings from, or other available assets of, Reebonz may not be sufficient to make distributions or pay dividends, pay expenses or satisfy our other financial obligations.

 

36

 

 

Fluctuations in operating results, quarter to quarter earnings and other factors, including incidents involving Reebonz’s customers and negative media coverage, may result in significant decreases in the price of our securities.

 

The stock markets experience volatility that is often unrelated to operating performance. These broad market fluctuations may adversely affect the trading price of our ordinary shares and, as a result, there may be significant volatility in the market price of our ordinary shares. If Reebonz is unable to operate profitably as investors expect, the market price of our ordinary shares will likely decline when it becomes apparent that the market expectations may not be realised. In addition to operating results, many economic and seasonal factors outside of our or Reebonz’s control could have an adverse effect on the price of our ordinary shares and increase fluctuations in our quarterly earnings. These factors include certain of the risks discussed herein, operating results of other companies in the same industry, changes in financial estimates or recommendations of securities analysts, speculation in the press or investment community, negative media coverage or risk of proceedings or government investigation, the possible effects of war, terrorist and other hostilities, adverse weather conditions, changes in general conditions in the economy or the financial markets or other developments affecting the luxury goods retail industry.

 

We will incur higher costs as a result of being a public company.

 

We will incur significant legal, accounting, insurance and other expenses, including costs associated with public company reporting requirements. We will incur higher costs associated with complying with the requirements of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act, the Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act (the “Dodd-Frank Act”), and related rules implemented by the SEC and NASDAQ. The expenses incurred by public companies generally for reporting and corporate governance purposes have been increasing. We expect these laws and regulations to increase our legal and financial compliance costs and to render some activities more time-consuming and costly, although we are currently unable to estimate these costs with any degree of certainty. We may need to hire more employees or engage outside consultants to comply with these requirements, which will increase our post-Business Combination costs and expenses. These laws and regulations could make it more difficult or costly for us to obtain certain types of insurance, including director and officer liability insurance, and we may be forced to accept reduced policy limits and coverage or incur substantially higher costs to obtain the same or similar coverage. These laws and regulations could also make it more difficult for us to attract and retain qualified persons to serve on our board of directors, board committees or as executive officers. Furthermore, if we are unable to satisfy our obligations as a public company, we could be subject to delisting of our ordinary shares, fines, sanctions and other regulatory action and potentially civil litigation.

 

The earnout provisions of our Business Combination Agreement and the Management Performance Plan may affect management decisions and incentives.

 

Under the Business Combination Agreement and the Management Performance Plan, the Sellers thereunder and our management will receive up to an additional 312,500 ordinary shares upon achieving certain consolidated revenue targets and share price targets for the calendar years 2019 and 2020 (with a share price lookback in each subsequent year). As a result, our management may focus on increasing consolidated revenue for us and our subsidiaries for such years rather than on the net income during such period, and may be incentivized to incur additional expenses to increase revenues without increasing net income during such periods. Additionally, the share price target can be achieved at any time during the applicable year, and the share price targets could be achieved early in the year and the revenues targets could be achieved, but the share price could fall later in the applicable year and the earnout shares would still be required to be delivered.

 

We do not anticipate paying any cash dividends in the foreseeable future.

 

We intend to retain future earnings, if any, for use in the business or for other corporate purposes and do not anticipate that cash dividends with respect to our ordinary shares will be paid in the foreseeable future. Any decision as to the future payment of dividends will depend on our results of operations, financial position and such other factors as our board of directors, in its discretion, deems relevant. As a result, capital appreciation, if any, of our ordinary shares will be a shareholder’s sole source of gain for the foreseeable future.

 

37

 

 

A market for our securities may not develop, which would adversely affect the liquidity and price of our securities.

 

The price of our securities may vary significantly due to general market or economic conditions. Furthermore, an active trading market for our ordinary shares may never develop or, if developed, it may not be sustained. You may be unable to sell your securities unless a market can be established and sustained.

 

The price of our ordinary shares may be volatile.

 

The price of our ordinary shares may fluctuate due to a variety of factors, including:

 

  actual or anticipated fluctuations in our quarterly and annual results and those of other public companies in industry;

 

  mergers and strategic alliances in the e-commerce and luxury retail industries;

 

  market prices and conditions in the e-commerce and luxury retail markets;

 

  changes in government regulation;

 

  potential or actual military conflicts or acts of terrorism;

 

  the failure of securities analysts to publish research about us, or shortfalls in our operating results compared to levels forecast by securities analysts;

 

  announcements concerning us or our competitors; and

 

  the general state of the securities markets.

 

These market and industry factors may materially reduce the market price of our ordinary shares, regardless of our operating performance.

 

Reports published by analysts, including projections in those reports that differ from our actual results, could adversely affect the price and trading volume of our common shares.

 

We currently expect that securities research analysts will establish and publish their own periodic projections for our business. These projections may vary widely and may not accurately predict the results we actually achieve. Our share price may decline if our actual results do not match the projections of these securities research analysts. Similarly, if one or more of the analysts who write reports on us downgrades our stock or publishes inaccurate or unfavorable research about our business, our share price could decline. If one or more of these analysts ceases coverage of us or fails to publish reports on us regularly, our share price or trading volume could decline. While we expect research analyst coverage, if no analysts commence coverage of us, the trading price and volume for our common shares could be adversely affected.

 

We may issue additional ordinary shares or other equity securities without your approval, which would dilute your ownership interests and may depress the market price of the Company’s ordinary shares.

 

We may issue additional ordinary shares or other equity securities of equal or senior rank in the future in connection with, among other things, future vessel acquisitions, repayment of outstanding indebtedness or our equity incentive plan, without shareholder approval, in a number of circumstances.

 

Our issuance of additional ordinary shares or other equity securities of equal or senior rank would have the following effects:

 

  our existing shareholders’ proportionate ownership interest in us will decrease;

 

  the amount of cash available per share, including for payment of dividends in the future, may decrease;

 

  the relative voting strength of each previously outstanding common share may be diminished; and

 

  the market price of our common shares may decline.

 

38

 

 

We are a Cayman Islands exempted company and, because judicial precedent regarding the rights of shareholders is more limited under Cayman Islands law than under U.S. law, you could have less protection of your shareholder rights than you would under U.S. law.

 

Our corporate affairs are governed by our amended and restated memorandum and articles of association, the Cayman Islands Companies Law, and the common law of the Cayman Islands. The rights of shareholders to take action against the directors, actions by noncontrolling shareholders and the fiduciary responsibilities of our directors to us under Cayman Islands law are to a large extent governed by the common law of the Cayman Islands. The common law of the Cayman Islands is derived in part from comparatively limited judicial precedent in the Cayman Islands as well as from English common law, which has persuasive, but not binding, authority on a court in the Cayman Islands. Your rights as a shareholders and the fiduciary responsibilities of our directors under Cayman Islands law are different from under statutes or judicial precedent in some jurisdictions in the United States. In particular, the Cayman Islands has a different body of securities laws from the United States and may provide significantly less protection to investors. In addition, some U.S. states, such as Delaware, have different bodies of corporate law than the Cayman Islands.

 

We have been advised by our Cayman Islands legal counsel, Dentons, that the courts of the Cayman Islands are unlikely (i) to recognise or enforce against us judgments of courts of the United States predicated upon the civil liability provisions of the securities laws of the United States or any State and (ii) in original actions brought in the Cayman Islands, to impose liabilities against us predicated upon the civil liability provisions of the securities laws of the United States or any State, so far as the liabilities imposed by those provisions are penal in nature. In those circumstances, although there is no statutory enforcement in the Cayman Islands of judgments obtained in the United States, the courts of the Cayman Islands will recognise and enforce a foreign money judgment of a foreign court of competent jurisdiction without retrial on the merits based on the principle that a judgment of a competent foreign court imposes upon the judgment debtor an obligation to pay the sum for which judgment has been given provided certain conditions are met. For a foreign judgment to be enforced in the Cayman Islands, such judgment must be final and conclusive and for a liquidated sum, and must not be in respect of taxes or a fine or penalty, inconsistent with a Cayman Islands judgment in respect of the same matter, impeachable on the grounds of fraud or obtained in a manner, and or be of a kind the enforcement of which is, contrary to natural justice or the public policy of the Cayman Islands (awards of punitive or multiple damages may well be held to be contrary to public policy). A Cayman Islands Court may stay enforcement proceedings if concurrent proceedings are being brought elsewhere. There is recent Privy Council authority (which is binding on the Cayman Islands Court) in the context of a reorganization plan approved by the New York Bankruptcy Court which suggests that due to the universal nature of bankruptcy/insolvency proceedings, foreign money judgments obtained in foreign bankruptcy/insolvency proceedings may be enforced without applying the principles outlined above. However, a more recent English Supreme Court authority (which is highly persuasive but not binding on the Cayman Islands Court), has expressly rejected that approach in the context of a default judgment obtained in an adversary proceeding brought in the New York Bankruptcy Court by the receivers of the bankruptcy debtor against a third party, and which would not have been enforceable upon the application of the traditional common law principles summarized above and held that foreign money judgments obtained in bankruptcy/insolvency proceedings should be enforced by applying the principles set out above, and not by the simple exercise of the Courts’ discretion. Those cases have now been considered by the Cayman Islands Court. The Cayman Islands Court was not asked to consider the specific question of whether a judgment of a bankruptcy court in an adversary proceeding would be enforceable in the Cayman Islands, but it did endorse the need for active assistance of overseas bankruptcy proceedings. Holdco understands that the Cayman Islands Court’s decision in that case has been appealed and it remains the case that the law regarding the enforcement of bankruptcy/insolvency related judgments is still in a state of uncertainty.

 

You will have limited ability to bring an action against us or against our directors and officers, or to enforce a judgment against us or them, because we are incorporated in the Cayman Islands, because we conduct a majority of our operations in Singapore and because a majority of our directors and officers reside outside the United States.

 

We are incorporated in the Cayman Islands and conduct a majority of our operations through our subsidiary, Reebonz, in Singapore. All of our assets are located outside the United States. A majority of our officers and directors reside outside the United States and a substantial portion of the assets of those persons are located outside of the United States. As a result, it could be difficult or impossible for you to bring an action against us or against these individuals in the Cayman Islands or in Singapore in the event that you believe that your rights have been infringed under the applicable securities laws or otherwise. Even if you are successful in bringing an action of this kind, the laws of the Cayman Islands and of Singapore could render you unable to enforce a judgment against our assets or the assets of our directors and officers.

 

39

 

 

Shareholders of Cayman Islands exempted companies such as us have no general rights under Cayman Islands law to inspect corporate records and accounts or to obtain copies of lists of shareholders of these companies. Our directors have discretion under Cayman Islands law to determine whether or not, and under what conditions, our corporate records could be inspected by our shareholders, but are not obliged to make them available to our shareholders. This could make it more difficult for you to obtain the information needed to establish any facts necessary for a shareholder motion or to solicit proxies from other shareholders in connection with a proxy contest.

 

As a result of all of the above, public shareholders might have more difficulty in protecting their interests in the face of actions taken by management, members of the board of directors or controlling shareholders than they would as public shareholders of a U.S. company.

 

There can be no assurance that our securities, including our ordinary shares, will continue to be listed on Nasdaq or, if listed, that we will be able to comply with the continued listing standards of Nasdaq, which could limit investors’ ability to make transactions in our securities and subject us to additional trading restrictions.

 

To continue listing our ordinary shares on The Nasdaq Stock Market, we will be required to demonstrate compliance with Nasdaq’s continued listing requirements. On September 5, 2019, Reebonz Holding Limited (the “Company”) issued a press release announcing that the Company has received written notification from The Nasdaq Stock Market LLC that the Company did not meet the continued listing requirements of maintaining a minimum Market Value of Publicly Held Shares for the Nasdaq Global Market, as set forth in the Nasdaq Listing Rule 5450(b)(3)(C) because the market value of the Company’s publicly held ordinary shares for the last 30 consecutive business days was below the minimum MVPHS requirement of US$15,000,000. Pursuant to Rule 5810(c)(3)(D) of the Nasdaq Listing Rules, the Company has a compliance period of 180 calendar days, or until February 25, 2020 (the "Compliance Period"), to regain compliance with Nasdaq's minimum MVPHS requirement. If at any time during the Compliance Period, the Company's MVPHS closes at US$15,000,000 or more for a minimum of ten consecutive business days, Nasdaq will provide the Company a written confirmation of compliance and the matter will be closed.

 

We cannot assure you that we will be able to meet Nasdaq’s continued listing requirement or maintain other listing standards. If our ordinary shares or warrants are delisted by Nasdaq, and we are not able to list our securities on another national securities exchange, we expect our securities could be quoted on an over-the-counter market. If this were to occur, then we could face significant material adverse consequences, including:

 

  less liquid trading market for our securities;

 

  more limited market quotations for our securities;

 

  determination that our ordinary shares and/or warrants are a “penny stock” that requires brokers to adhere to more stringent rules and possibly resulting in a reduced level of trading activity in the secondary trading market for our securities;

 

  more limited research coverage by stock analysts;

 

  loss of reputation; and

 

  more difficult and more expensive equity financings in the future.

 

The National Securities Markets Improvement Act of 1996, which is a federal statute, prevents or preempts the states from regulating the sale of certain securities, which are referred to as “covered securities.” If our ordinary shares remain listed on NASDAQ, our ordinary shares will be covered securities. Although the states are preempted from regulating the sale of our securities, the federal statute does allow the states to investigate companies if there is a suspicion of fraud, and, if there is a finding of fraudulent activity, then the states can regulate or bar the sale of covered securities in a particular case. If our securities were no longer listed on Nasdaq and therefore not “covered securities”, we would be subject to regulation in each state in which we offer our securities.

 

Provisions in our amended and restated memorandum and articles of association may inhibit a takeover of us, which could limit the price investors might be willing to pay in the future for our securities and could entrench management.

 

Our amended and restated memorandum and articles of association contain provisions that may discourage unsolicited takeover proposals that our shareholders may consider to be in their best interests. Among other provisions, the staggered board of directors may make it more difficult for our shareholders to remove incumbent management and accordingly discourage transactions that otherwise could involve payment of a premium over prevailing market prices for our securities. Other anti-takeover provisions in our amended and restated memorandum and articles of association include the ability of our board of directors to issue preferred shares with preferences and voting rights determined by the board without shareholder approval, the indemnification of our officers and directors, the requirement that directors may only be removed from our board of directors for cause and the requirement for the affirmative vote of holders of at least two-thirds of the voting power to amend provisions therein that affect shareholder rights. These provisions could also make it difficult for our shareholders to take certain actions and limit the price investors might be willing to pay for our securities.

 

40

 

 

As a “foreign private issuer” under the rules and regulations of the SEC, we are permitted to, and will, file less or different information with the SEC than a company incorporated in the United States or otherwise subject to these rules, and will follow certain home country corporate governance practices in lieu of certain Nasdaq requirements applicable to U.S. issuers.

 

We are considered a “foreign private issuer” under the Exchange Act and is therefore exempt from certain rules under the Exchange Act, including the proxy rules, which impose certain disclosure and procedural requirements for proxy solicitations for U.S. and other issuers. Moreover, we are not required to file periodic reports and financial statements with the SEC as frequently or within the same time frames as U.S. companies with securities registered under the Exchange Act. We currently prepare our financial statements in accordance with IFRS. We are not required to file financial statements prepared in accordance with or reconciled to U.S. GAAP so long as our financial statements are prepared in accordance with IFRS as issued by the International Accounting Standards Board. We are not required to comply with Regulation FD, which imposes restrictions on the selective disclosure of material information to shareholders. In addition, our officers, directors and principal shareholders are exempt from the reporting and short-swing profit recovery provisions of Section 16 of the Exchange Act and the rules under the Exchange Act with respect to their purchases and sales of our securities. Accordingly, you may receive less or different information about us than you currently receive about us.

 

In addition, as a “foreign private issuer” whose ordinary shares are listed on the NASDAQ, we are permitted to follow certain home country corporate governance practices in lieu of certain NASDAQ requirements. A foreign private issuer must disclose in its Annual Reports filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission, or the SEC, each NASDAQ requirement with which it does not comply followed by a description of its applicable home country practice. We currently intend to follow the corporate governance requirements of NASDAQ. However, we cannot make any assurances that we will continue to follow such corporate governance requirements in the future, and may therefore in the future, rely on available NASDAQ exemptions that would allow us to follow our home country practice. Unlike the requirements of the NASDAQ, the corporate governance practice and requirements in the Cayman Islands do not require us to have a majority of our board of directors to be independent; do not require us to establish a nominations committee; and do not require us to hold regular executive sessions where only independent directors shall be present. Such Cayman Islands home country practices may afford less protection to holders of our Ordinary Shares.

 

We could lose our status as a “foreign private issuer” under current SEC rules and regulations if more than 50% of our outstanding voting securities become directly or indirectly held of record by U.S. holders and one of the following is true: (i) the majority of our directors or executive officers are U.S. citizens or residents; (ii) more than 50% of our assets are located in the United States; or (iii) our business is administered principally in the United States. If we lose our status as a foreign private issuer in the future, we will no longer be exempt from the rules described above and, among other things, will be required to file periodic reports and annual and quarterly financial statements as if it were a company incorporated in the United States. If this were to happen, we would likely incur substantial costs in fulfilling these additional regulatory requirements and members of our management would likely have to divert time and resources from other responsibilities to ensuring these additional regulatory requirements are fulfilled.

 

Risks Related to Doing Business in Countries in Which We Operate

 

Developments in the social, political, regulatory and economic environment in Singapore, or other countries where we operate, may have a material and adverse impact on it.

 

Our business, prospects, financial condition and results of operations may be adversely affected by social, political, regulatory and economic developments in countries in which it operates. Such political and economic uncertainties include, but are not limited to, the risks of war, terrorism, nationalism, nullification of contract, changes in interest rates, imposition of capital controls and methods of taxation. For example, we derive a substantial portion of our revenue from the Singapore market, and negative developments in Singapore’s socio-political environment may adversely affect our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects. Although the overall economic environment in Singapore and other countries where we operate appears to be positive, there can be no assurance that this will continue to prevail in the future.

 

41

 

 

Disruptions in the international trading environment may seriously decrease our international sales.

 

The success and profitability of our international activities depend on certain factors beyond our control, such as general economic conditions, labor conditions, political stability, macro-economic regulating measures, tax laws, import and export duties, transportation difficulties, fluctuation of local currency and foreign exchange controls of the countries in which we sell our products, as well as the political and economic relationships among the jurisdictions where we source products and jurisdictions where our customers are located. As a result, our services will continue to be vulnerable to disruptions in the international trading environment, including adverse changes in foreign government regulations, political unrest and international economic downturns. For example, certain countries in which we sell our products may require that our customers or freight forwarders obtain import licenses, and there can be no assurance that, where required, our customers or freight forwarders will be aware of or obtain such licenses. If licenses are not obtained by our customers or freight forwarders, this may subject our sales transactions to greater scrutiny and could result in more stringent regulations being applied to it in the future. It may also subject us to additional costs and expenses in the event it experiences returns and may cause us to lose existing customers or discontinue or re-design some of our fulfilment processes in some or all of our business lines in certain countries, all of which may materially and adversely affect our results of operations.

 

Any disruptions in the international trading environment may affect the demand for our products, which could impact our business, financial condition and results of operations.

 

Risks relating to our recent financing

 

Our recently Notes reduces our financial flexibility and could impede our ability to operate.

 

We consummated a private placement on September 4, 2019 in which we issued an aggregate $3.75 million principal amount of Notes. On November 29, 2019, and thereafter, on the last Trading Day of the calendar month immediately following the previous Installment Date until and including the Maturity Date, we are required to make installment payments equal to 1/9th of the initial outstanding principal amount under the Notew, which shall be paid in cash or our Ordinary Shares. If we elect to make an installment payment in cash (an “Installment Redemption”) we will pay in cash an amount equal to 103% of the applicable Installment Redemption Amount for such installment. If we elect to make an installment payment in Ordinary Shares (subject to certain Equity Conditions), the Installment Redemption Amount shall be satisfied by issuing the number of Ordinary Shares calculated based on the Installment Conversion Price, which is the lower of (i) the Conversion Price then in effect (initially at $6.50 per share), and (ii) 85% of the quotient of (A) the sum of the VWAP of the Ordinary Shares for each of the three (3) Trading Days with the lowest VWAP of the Ordinary Shares during the twenty (20) consecutive Trading Day period ending and including the Trading Day immediately prior to the applicable Installment Date, divided by (B) three (3). If the Company elects to satisfy all or any portion of an installment in shares of Ordinary Shares, the Company will pre-deliver such Ordinary Shares to the Investor on the 23rd Trading Day prior to the applicable Installment Date, with a true-up of shares (if necessary) on the Installment Date. All amortization payments shall be subject to the Investors’ right to (a) defer some or all of any Installment Payment to a subsequent Installment Date; and (b) at any time during an Installment Period, convert up to four times the Installment Amount at the Installment Price. If we cannot meet these conditions, we could be required to repay some or all of the amounts due under the notes in cash, and we may not have the funds available to make one or more of such payments when due. Even if we do have funds so available, the use of cash to make such payments could adversely affect our ability to fund operations due to the diversion of necessary cash flow to fund operations to utilization for note payments. Furthermore, the notes impose certain restrictive covenants on us which may impede our ability to operate our business or raise further funds in the capital markets. For example, there are restrictions on incurring additional indebtedness, with exceptions, while the Notes are outstanding.

 

We intend to make payments on notes in ordinary shares, which could be highly dilutive to our shareholders.

 

As of the date of this prospectus, we do not believe that we will have the financial ability, nor would it be in the best interests of our shareholders, to make all payments on the notes in cash when due. Thus, we intend, as of the date hereof, to make such payments in ordinary shares, to the greatest extent possible.

 

42

 

 

Adjustments to the conversion price for the Notes issued to the selling shareholders will further dilute the ownership interests of our existing stockholders.

 

The Notes are convertible at any time after issuance, in whole or in part, at the holder’s option, into our ordinary shares at an initial conversion price equal to $6.50 per ordinary share.  However, upon an event of default under the holder may convert the notes using an Alternate Conversion Price which is the greater of (x) the Floor Price ($0.30) and (y) the lowest of (I) 80% of the VWAP of the Ordinary Shares as of the Trading Day immediately preceding the delivery or deemed delivery of the applicable Conversion Notice, (II) 85% of the VWAP of the Ordinary Shares as of the Trading Day of the delivery or deemed delivery of the applicable Conversion Notice and (III) 85% of the price computed as the quotient of (I) the sum of the VWAP of the Ordinary Shares for each of the three (3) Trading Days with the lowest VWAP of the Ordinary Shares during the twenty (20) consecutive Trading Day period ending and including the Trading Day immediately preceding the delivery or deemed delivery of the applicable Conversion Notice, divided by (II) three (3). In addition, following an event of default, the note will accrue interest at a rate of 18.0% per annum, which amounts are also convertible into ordinary shares.

 

Any reduction in the conversion price below the initial conversion price of $6.50 will result in significant additional ordinary shares being issued upon conversion of the notes, that would further dilute our existing shareholders.

 

The following table sets forth the number of ordinary shares of common stock we would be required to issue upon full conversion of the $3,750,000 convertible note at the initial $6.50 conversion price and the resulting percentage of our ordinary shares outstanding after such a conversion as well as the number of ordinary shares we would be required to issue assuming decreases of 25%, 50%, 75% and 90% in the initial $6.50 conversion price (without regard to 4.99% ownership limit contained in the Notes).

 

Conversion Price  Ordinary Shares Issued (1)   Percentage of Outstanding Ordinary Shares (2) 
$6.50   576,923    8.49%
$4.875 (-25%)   769,231    11.00%
$3.25 (-50%)   1,153,846    15.64%
$1.625 (-75%)   2,307,692    27.05%
$0.65   5,769,231    48.11%

 

(1)The number of ordinary shares issuable upon conversion and the percentage of  outstanding ordinary share after such conversion set forth above do not take into account any ordinary shares that may be issuable as a result of any default interest accruing upon an event of default.
  
(2)Based on 6,221,964 ordinary shares outstanding.

 

CAUTIONARY NOTE REGARDING FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS

 

Some of the statements in this prospectus constitute forward-looking statements that do not directly or exclusively relate to historical facts. You should not place undue reliance on such statements because they are subject to numerous uncertainties and factors relating to our operations and business environment, all of which are difficult to predict and many of which are beyond our control. Forward-looking statements include information concerning our possible or assumed future results of operations, including descriptions of our business strategy. These statements are often, but not always, made through the use of words or phrases such as “believe,” “anticipate,” “could,” “may,” “would,” “should,” “intend,” “plan,” “potential,” “predict,” “will,” “expect,” “estimate,” “project,” “positioned,” “strategy,” “outlook” and similar expressions. All such forward-looking statements involve estimates and assumptions that are subject to risks, uncertainties and other factors that could cause actual results to differ materially from the results expressed in the statements. Among the key factors that could cause actual results to differ materially from those projected in the forward-looking statements are the following:

 

  our ability to maintain the listing of our securities on Nasdaq;

 

  our ability to adapt to technology and other changes in our highly competitive industry;

 

  management of growth;

 

  general economic conditions, especially changes in disposal income in our markets;

 

  our business strategy and plans; and

 

  the result of future financing efforts.

 

These and other factors are more fully discussed in the “Risk Factors” section and elsewhere in this prospectus. These risks could cause actual results to differ materially from those implied by forward-looking statements in this prospectus.

 

You are cautioned not to place undue reliance on these forward-looking statements that speak only as of the date hereof. New risks and uncertainties come up from time to time, and it is impossible for us to predict these events or how they may affect us. We do not undertake any obligation to update or revise any forward-looking statements after the date of this prospectus, whether as a result of new information, future events or otherwise, except as required by law. In light of these risks and uncertainties, you should keep in mind that any event described in a forward-looking statement made in this prospectus or elsewhere might not occur.

 

43

 

 

USE OF PROCEEDS

 

We are not selling any of the ordinary shares being offered by this prospectus and will receive no proceeds from the sale of the shares by the selling stockholders. All of the proceeds from the sale of ordinary shares offered by this prospectus will go to the selling stockholders at the time they offer and sell such shares. We will bear all costs associated with registering the ordinary shares offered by this prospectus.

 

DIVIDEND POLICY

 

We currently expect to retain all future earnings for use in the operation and expansion of our business and do not plan to pay any dividends on our ordinary shares in the near future. The declaration and payment of any dividends in the future will be determined by our board of directors in its discretion, and will depend on a number of factors, including our earnings, capital requirements, overall financial condition, applicable law and contractual restrictions. In addition, as a holding company, our ability to pay dividends depends on our receipt of cash dividends from our operating subsidiaries, which may further restrict our ability to pay dividends as a result of the laws of their respective jurisdictions of organization, agreements of our subsidiaries or covenants under future indebtedness that we or they may incur.

 

44

 

 

CAPITALIZATION

 

The following table sets forth Reebonz’s cash and cash equivalents and capitalization as of June 30, 2019:

 

You should read this table in conjunction with our financial statements and related notes included in this prospectus, and the information under “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations.”

 

   Actual 
   US$’000 
Cash and cash equivalents   2,509 
Total liabilities   65,101 
      
Share capital (6,221,964 ordinary shares issued and outstanding)   92,090 
Warrants   5,710 
Accumulated losses   (126,411)
Other components of equity   17,622 
Non-controlling interests   77 
Total shareholders’ deficit   (10,912)

 

Post 30 June 2019, net proceeds of US$3.301 million was received by the Company from entering into a convertible loan with an investor in September 2019, after deducting interest of US$0.225 million and US$0.224 million placement agent fee and associated legal fees in connection with the transaction.

 

45

 

 

OUR BUSINESS

 

Our Company

 

We were incorporated solely for the purpose of effectuating the Business Combination. We were incorporated under the laws of the Cayman Islands as an exempted company on July 27, 2018. Prior to the Business Combination, we owned no material assets and did not operate any business. The mailing address of our registered office is 3rd Floor, One Capital Place, Shedden Road, George Town, Grand Cayman, Cayman Islands. Our principal executive office is located at 5 Tampines North Drive 5, #07-00, Singapore 528548 and our telephone number is (+65) 6499 9469.

 

On December 19, 2018, the Company consummated the Business Combination, and changed its name to “Reebonz Holding Limited” in connection with the closing of the Business Combination.

 

Overview

 

Our goal is to make luxury accessible, build a leading global luxury brand and become a trusted platform to buy and sell luxury goods.

 

We believe we are a leading player in the online luxury market in our markets of Southeast Asia and Core Asia Pacific Market, based on GMV. Our Core Asia Pacific Market consists of Singapore, Malaysia, Indonesia, Thailand, the Philippines, Vietnam, Hong Kong, South Korea, Taiwan, Australia and New Zealand, collectively. “Southeast Asia” is comprised of only Singapore, Malaysia, Indonesia, Thailand, Philippines and Vietnam. We make luxury accessible to consumers through our internet platform, which includes localized versions of our website, www.reebonz.com, and our Reebonz mobile app, complemented by our offline channels. Through our core B2C Merchandise Business, we curate and sell authentic new and pre-owned luxury goods, including handbags, small leather goods and other accessories, shoes, watches, and jewelry from the world’s leading luxury brands. We also provide a marketplace for individuals to sell new and pre-owned luxury goods. We believe our buyer and seller promises, transaction fulfillment services, returns and refunds policies and product authentication capabilities have helped us build a trusted reputation that encourages buyers and sellers to use our platform. With the introduction of our White Glove Service, a consignment marketplace, in 2012 and Reebonz Closets, a C2C marketplace, in February 2015, and the launch of our B2C Merchant’s Marketplace in Singapore in May 2015, we have grown our Marketplace Business to complement our B2C Merchandise Business by enabling our buyers to become sellers, and sellers to become buyers, thereby transforming our business into an integrated ecosystem for luxury goods that increases engagement and enhances the lifetime value of our customers. We provide buyers and sellers an omni-channel experience to buy and sell luxury goods through our integrated websites, mobile app and offline channels. As of June 30, 2019, we offered more than 800 thousand SKUs and greater than 1,000 brands through our platform. Our business has changed substantially since its launch in May 2009. In 2018, we achieved a GMV of US$234.5 million and revenue of US$88.4 million. In the six months ended June 30, 2019, we achieved a GMV of US$97.6 million and revenue of US$31.1 million.

 

46

 

 

The following diagram depicts our organizational structure:

 

 

1. A 51% interest in Reebonz (Thailand) Limited is legally owned by local Thai shareholders, who have assigned their power to direct relevant activities and rights to variable returns to us. As a result, we consolidate Reebonz (Thailand) Limited as a subsidiary. Revenues from Thailand accounted for 1.1% of our revenue in 1H 2019.

 

2. We are entitled to appoint a majority of the board of directors of Reebonz Korea Co., Ltd. We have concluded that we have control over Reebonz Korea Co., Ltd. and its key activities, and own rights to a majority of its variable returns and accordingly we consolidate Reebonz Korea Co., Ltd. as a subsidiary. The remaining interest in Reebonz Korea Co., Ltd. is owned by ISE Commerce Inc. and a number of other shareholders which each own less than 5% of the shares of Reebonz Korea Co., Ltd. Revenues from Korea accounted for 40.1% of our revenue in 1H 2019.

 

Our business model is summarized below:

 

B2C Merchandise Business.    Currently, our core business is our B2C Merchandise Business, through which we sell authentic new and pre-owned luxury goods to buyers through our platform. We source new items primarily from authorized distributors and luxury wholesalers and pre-owned items from individuals, pre-owned luxury dealers and auction houses. Unlike our Marketplace Business, in our B2C Merchandise Business, we purchase new and pre-owned items as inventory for sale to our buyers. Our sales are largely made through limited-time curated sales events and open-catalogue listings on our online platform as well as offline channels. In 2018, our B2C Merchandise Business accounted for 53.0% of our GMV and 94.4% of our Revenue. In the six months ended June 30, 2019, our B2C Merchandise Business accounted for 37.3% of our GMV and 91.5% of our Revenue.

 

Marketplace Business.    Our Marketplace Business consists of our C2C Individual Seller’s Marketplace and our B2C Merchant’s Marketplace. Our C2C Individual Seller’s Marketplace allows individual sellers to sell luxury goods to buyers through Reebonz Closets or our White Glove Service. Our Reebonz Closets, launched in February 2015, is a C2C marketplace, where individual members use our mobile app to sell pre-owned luxury goods directly to other members in the same country, with the added benefit of authentication by our ateliers before delivery to the buyer. Reebonz Closets currently operates in Singapore, Hong Kong, Indonesia, Malaysia, Taiwan and Thailand, and we intend to launch Reebonz Closets in other markets in the future. Our White Glove Service, which we launched in 2012, caters to premium individual sellers. Through our White Glove Service, we take luxury goods on consignment from individuals, offer them for sale on our platform and, in addition to authentication, provide certain services such as valuation, grading, photographing, writing product descriptions, and interfacing with buyers. In May 2015, we launched our B2C Merchant’s Marketplace in Singapore. Our B2C Merchant’s Marketplace is a B2C marketplace that aggregates multi-brand boutiques, shops that sell pre-owned luxury goods and vintage luxury dealers curated by us from around the world and allows them to sell new and pre-owned luxury goods on our websites. As of June 30, 2019, products have been shipped through our B2C Merchant’s Marketplace to, among other locations, Singapore, Hong Kong, Malaysia, Australia, the Middle East, North America, and Taiwan. In 2018, our Marketplace Business accounted for 47.0% of our GMV and 5.1% of our Revenue. In the six months ended June 30, 2019, our Marketplace Business accounted for 62.7% of our GMV and 8.5% of our Revenue.

 

47

 

 

Our platform consists of our websites and mobile app, complemented by our offline channels. Our international website is www.reebonz.com and we also operate ten websites fully localized for language, currency, payment gateways, sales events, promotions and customer service, and 33 additional websites that are localized for language and/or currency. We also offer a mobile app that can be downloaded in 41 countries. We also sell luxury goods through offline channels, such as our retail lounges and limited-time, invitation-only pop-up events. We believe that our offline channels complement our online sales by enhancing our overall branding, attracting traditional offline shoppers, encouraging traditional offline shoppers to try online shopping, and have otherwise helped us create an online-to-offline and offline-to-online omni-channel experience for buying and selling luxury goods.

 

We believe our business has been driven by a variety of factors, including: our eco-system strategy that enables buyers to become sellers, and sellers to become buyers, our ability to offer a wide range of goods from leading brands at competitive prices across online, offline, and mobile channels; the continued development of our pioneering product authentication, appraisal, and grading capabilities, which has helped us build a trusted reputation among our buyers and sellers; our provision of a seamless customer experience that makes payment, delivery, and returns fast and easy; and our ability to tailor and personalize our advertising and marketing communications to our members.

 

Our business volume has changed substantially in recent years. For example, (i) our GMV decreased from USD$250.1 million in 2017 to USD$234.5 million in 2018, (ii) our number of accumulated buyers and registered members increased from 441,612 and 5,536,652, respectively, in 2017 to 523,057 and 5,875,887, respectively, in 2018, (iii) repeat buyers decreased from 54,329 in 2017 to 49,932 in 2018, and (iv) average order value increased from USD$672 in 2017 to US$675 in 2018. For the six months ended June 30, 2018 and 2019, respectively, (i) our GMV decreased from USD$126.9 million to USD$97.6 million, (ii) our number of accumulated buyers and registered members increased from 479,532 and 5,702,673, to 558,106 and 6,055,578 (iii) repeat buyers decreased from 28,166 to 25,490, and (iv) average order value decreased from USD$738 to US$574. The decreases were primarily due to scale back of marketing expenses and decrease in inventory.

 

In addition, from January 1, 2015 to June 30, 2019, our C2C Individual Seller’s Marketplace had 51,751 unique sellers who had uploaded 444,107 SKUs available for sale. As of June 30, 2019, our B2C Merchant’s Marketplace had 152 merchants.

 

We recorded revenues of US$88.4 million and operating losses of US$13.2 million in 2018. We recorded revenues of US$31.1 million and operating losses of US$7.6 million for the six months ending June 30, 2019.

 

Our negative Adjusted EBITDA was US$8.3 million in 2018and our net loss for 2018 was US$35.5 million. Our negative Adjusted EBITDA was US$3.9 million and our net loss was US$8.9 million for the six months ending June 30, 2019. See “Selected Consolidated Financial Data and Selected Operating Data” section for a reconciliation of Adjusted EBITDA to loss for the year.

 

Our Strategies

 

Our goal is to make luxury accessible, build a leading global luxury brand and become the most trusted platform to buy and sell luxury goods. We plan to achieve this goal by implementing the following strategies:

 

Enhance and Scale our Marketplace Business.    We introduced two marketplaces in 2015, namely Reebonz Closets in February 2015 and launched our B2C Merchant’s Marketplace in Singapore in May 2015. We believe there are significant advantages from growing our Marketplace Business, including expansion of the range of luxury goods available on our platform across multiple categories, price points and brands. In addition, because products sold through our marketplaces are sold directly from sellers to buyers, our Marketplace Business does not require us to maintain inventory or include cost of inventory in our cost of revenue providing higher margins and potentially higher return on capital compared with our B2C Merchandise Business. In addition, we believe our core B2C Merchandise Business provides us with a strong customer base to attract individual sellers. As of June 30, 2019, our ecosystem included over 6 million registered members. We seek to reduce customer acquisition costs by leveraging our ecosystem to convert buyers into sellers and sellers into buyers. To that end, we plan to increase our seller base by leveraging the scalability and compelling value proposition that Reebonz Closets, White Glove, Sell Back and Sell to Reebonz offers.

 

48

 

 

In May 2017, we launched a feature called “Sell Back” through which existing Reebonz customers could sell to us, their pre-owned luxury item, in selected brands and product categories previously purchased on Reebonz for Reebonz Credits.

 

In May 2018, we launched a new feature in beta called “Sell Back Guarantee” through which we provide a guaranteed sell back price upfront for a product if a customer wishes to sell it back to us within three months of purchase. The sell back price is determined based on a combination of factors including brand and product category, amongst others. We will continue to test and experiment on other product features to increase number of individual sellers in the ecosystem.

 

We plan to use data on past transactions, buyers’ style preferences and current wish lists to incentivize customers to monetize their unused items and encourage the purchase of pre-owned merchandise through our platform. Our “Sell Back” and “Sell Back Guarantee” feature encourages existing customers to sell back their selected Reebonz purchase(s) made through B2C Merchandise Business or White Glove Service for payment in Reebonz Credits to offset future purchases. Sell Back and Sell Back Guarantee are now available in Singapore, Malaysia, Indonesia, Thailand, Hong Kong, Taiwan, Australia, the Middle East, and the United States. We expanded the categories that we offer Sell Back and Sell Back Guarantee to from selected brands of handbags, small leather goods, shoes, jewelry, and accessories.

 

We launched our “Sell to Reebonz” feature in May 2019. This features allows all luxury consumers an alternative way to sell their pre-owned designer products directly to Reebonz in lieu of Reebonz Credits, which can be used to offset future purchases. With a pre-populated catalog, which currently includes over 30,000 designer items, consumers can browse the Sell Catalog, match their item, and exchange it for Reebonz Credits. Customers can receive credits within 24 hours based on the guaranteed price shown on the Sell Catalog, subject to final condition of the item. The service was initially launched in Singapore, and was expanded to Malaysia, Indonesia, Hong Kong, Taiwan, and Australia. Categories such as handbags, small leather goods, timepieces, and jewelry are currently in the catalog, for selected brands.

 

In addition, since mobile devices serve as the first point of entry for internet access and online commerce in many Southeast Asian countries, we intend to leverage mobile technology to promote the benefits of Reebonz Closets, which is a social marketplace that encourages discovery of pre-owned luxury goods using mobile devices. Reebonz Closets has a “Prices” feature that presents the history of products sold, with transacted prices. This encourages potential sellers to price their product according to the market prices and encourages buyers to discover valuable products. Reebonz Closets currently operates in Singapore, Hong Kong, Malaysia, Indonesia, Taiwan and Thailand, and we intend to launch Reebonz Closets in other markets in the future.

 

An important part of our strategy is to grow our B2C Merchant’s Marketplace. We plan to leverage our existing base of buyers to attract merchants of new and pre-owned products as well as local designers and independent brands to our platform. We believe this will create a wider range of high-quality luxury goods available on our platform, without the need for us to purchase additional inventory. As of June 30, 2019, we had 152 merchants on our platform.

 

Continue to Expand the Product Categories, Brands and Number of SKUs Available on our Platform. We plan to further expand the range and number of products available for purchase through our platform, as we believe this will help attract more buyers and sellers. In our B2C Merchandise Business, we plan to establish relationships with additional suppliers, particularly in additional countries in Europe, the United States and Japan, and enhance relationships with existing suppliers in order to increase our product range. A key element of our strategy is to continue to expand the range of products and number of SKUs available through our marketplaces, which we believe will provide us with a sourcing “long tail” (being the ability to sell a large number of unique items with relatively small quantities sold of each) to complement our B2C Merchandise Business by allowing us to increase the number of SKUs available without the need to take on additional inventory. We plan to market to additional third-party sellers to offer more product categories, brands and SKUs in our marketplaces while maintaining our standards for trust and customer service. See “— Enhance and Scale our Marketplace Business.”

 

Continue to Enhance Customer Experience and Loyalty. We attract new buyers and sellers and foster loyalty through exceptional service and exclusive loyalty programs. We plan to continue to enhance our customer experience through, among others, continuing to add more new and pre-owned products to the platform, increase product categories, curate desirable luxury goods at attractive prices, continuing to implement enhancements to our platform, improving fulfillment and logistics services, providing improved delivery times and offering additional collection locations, expanding our customer hotline hours and introducing new payment options, including Reebonz Credits and improving payment times to sellers.

 

We intend to continue to implement our data analytics and personalization strategy through additional aggregation and analytics of buyer and seller data using our proprietary technology and algorithms to optimize search, customer interface, product design and personalized marketing in order to better direct buyers to relevant sellers’ listings and better market listings to the right set of buyers. These also provide an attractive return on investment by enabling us to attract more buyers and increase sales without the need to incur significant marketing expenses. We intend to continue to utilize data analytics to capture customer behavior, improve product personalization, and convert more buyers into sellers. As our mobile platform remains key to our customer experience and growth, we plan to continue to increase our mobile customer base and engagement through additional innovations and improvements in our mobile offerings. We encourage web users to utilize our mobile app which offers “push” updates and periodically scheduled releases with new features. We conduct special offers and events to encourage mobile users to download and use our mobile app with a view to increasing access to our business across the platform. Improving our mobile app is a key part of our strategy to access buyers and sellers through multiple touch points, serving as an additional marketing channel to encourage customer loyalty and as a direct sourcing channel for new customers.

 

49

 

 

Our Business Model

 

Our Mission is to create the easiest way to buy and sell luxury.

 

Our core brand vision is to make luxury accessible as illustrated in the diagram below.

 

 

Our business model is described below:

 

B2C Merchandise Business.    Currently, our core business is our B2C Merchandise Business, where we sell authentic new luxury goods sourced from authorized distributors and luxury wholesalers at competitive prices and authenticated pre-owned luxury goods sourced from individuals, pre-owned luxury dealers and auction houses. Our online direct sales are made through our websites, including www.reebonz.com, and our mobile app to registered members. Leveraging our understanding of buyers’ preferences as well as our merchandizing capabilities, we sell our luxury goods primarily through limited-time curated sales events and through open catalogue shopping on our websites. Our limited-time curated sales events consist of a carefully selected collection of luxury goods that typically focus on a certain brand or product type and are available at a discount for a limited period of time. On average, we launch eight to ten curated sales events per day for new luxury goods and one to two daily events for pre-owned goods across all countries we ship to, which typically last one to five days. Members of our loyalty programs are provided with early access to certain exclusive sales events including new arrivals.

 

50

 

 

We provide buyers with free delivery within an average of three business days (in the case of delivery within Singapore) or five business days (in the case of delivery outside Singapore, except Indonesia, Thailand, Korea and China where we deliver within seven business days), and our prices include all duties, taxes and landing costs. Depending on the country, we charge a nominal shipping fee for orders below a certain minimum value. We also provide buyers with free shipping on returns. Offline direct sales are made through our offline channels, which include our retail lounges and pop-up events. In 2018, 16.2% of our revenue was generated through offline channels. In 2018 sales through our B2C Merchandise Business accounted for 53.0% of our GMV and our GMV from our B2C Merchandise Business was US$124.4 million. In 2018, revenue from our B2C Merchandise Business accounted for 94.4% of our Revenue and our revenue from our B2C Merchandise Business was US$83.4 million.

 

For the six months ended June 30, 2019, 15.9% of our revenue was generated through offline channels. For the six months ended June 30, 2019, sales through our B2C Merchandise Business accounted for 37.3% of our GMV and our GMV from our B2C Merchandise Business was US$36.5 million. For the six months ended June 30, 2019, revenue from our B2C Merchandise Business accounted for 91.5% of our Revenue and our revenue from our B2C Merchandise Business was US$28.5 million.

 

Marketplace Business.    Our Marketplace Business consists of our B2C Merchant’s Marketplace and C2C Individual Seller’s Marketplace.

 

B2C Merchant’s Marketplace

 

In May 2015, we launched our B2C Merchant’s Marketplace in Singapore. Our B2C Merchant’s Marketplace aggregates multi brand boutiques, shops that sell new and pre-owned luxury goods and vintage luxury dealers curated by us from around the world. Merchants are able to use our websites to sell new and pre-owned luxury goods and can also open an online boutique. We require merchants to meet certain standards for authenticity and reliability, and all merchants that sell in our marketplace are pre-qualified by us. We are also working directly with brands and have added local designers and other independent brands to our platform to expand our product selection and be a platform of discovery for new and unique young designers.

 

Goods are sold and shipped directly from sellers to buyers using our fulfillment services, which we provide through third party logistics providers. These fulfillment services include pick up from the merchant, delivery to the buyer and processing of payments, returns and refunds. We provide Reebonz packaging to each of the merchants we work with. Customer payments are wired securely through Reebonz, through which we keep our commissions and pay the merchant upon mutually agreed number of days. We earn revenue through charging commissions and plan to charge annual listing fees.

 

From the date of our inception to June 30, 2019, our B2C Merchant’s Marketplace offered 322,503 SKUs from 152 merchants for sale. As of June 30, 2019, products have been shipped through our B2C Merchant’s Marketplace to, among other locations, Singapore, Hong Kong, Malaysia, Australia, the Middle East, North America and Taiwan.

 

C2C Individual Seller’s Marketplace

 

Our C2C Individual Seller’s Marketplace allows individuals to sell luxury goods to buyers. In February 2015, we launched Reebonz Closets, which is a marketplace that allows members to sell authenticated, pre-owned luxury goods directly to buyers in the same country through our platform. Reebonz Closets is a social marketplace that encourages social discovery of pre-owned luxury goods using mobile devices. We make it convenient for sellers to photograph, upload information about and sell their luxury goods. Customers can comment on, “like” and share items posted for sale by other customers. Sellers and buyers can use the chat function in our mobile app to exchange product information and negotiate pricing.

 

We provide payment, fulfillment, and authentication services by our team of ateliers at a collection spoke. Our collection spokes function as collection locations for our White Glove Service, explained below, as warehouses to store pre-owned items until they are sold and as authentication points in countries with Reebonz Closets.

 

51

 

 

We currently allow products from 160 brands to be sold through Reebonz Closets, which we authenticate and assist in fulfillment and payment between buyer and seller and each item must exceed a minimum value threshold. We also allow products to be sold from 1,955 brands which we don’t authenticate but assist in fulfillment and payment between buyer and seller. We currently charge a maximum of 10% commission on the sales price, which represents our revenue. Commission is tiered and dependent on the selling price of the product, regardless of the brand. See an example of commission paid per the table below of a product that is sold for $3,000.

 

Selling Price  Example  Commission Scheme 
The commission payable for a $3,000 item will be as follows:    
First $300: Fixed $30  First $300; $30 fixed commission  $30 
On the next $301 to $2,000; 10% rate  On the next $1,700; 10% of $1,700  $170 
On the next $2,001 onwards: 7% rate  On the next $1,000; 7% of $1,000  $70 
   Total Commission ($30 + $170 + $70)  $270 

 

Our Reebonz Closets also allows customers to transact directly with other customers whereby we do not provide payment, fulfilment nor authentication services. For those transactions, we do not charge commission.

 

We also provide return and refund processing services where the cost of shipping for returns is borne by the buyer. The selling price is exclusive of taxes and a flat shipping fee paid for by the buyer. Once a payment is received by us, we hold it until expiration of the return period, whereupon we remit payment, less our commission, shipping and taxes payable, to the seller. In the case of a return, once the seller receives the returned item, we refund the purchase price to the buyer, net of return shipping costs and we do not receive a commission.

 

As of June 30, 2019, our Reebonz Closets platform is available in Singapore, Hong Kong, Taiwan, Malaysian, Thailand, and Indonesia.

 

We also provide individual sellers with our premium White Glove Service for higher-end luxury goods. We take goods meeting certain criteria on consignment from individuals in countries where we have collection spokes, namely Singapore, Hong Kong, Taiwan, South Korea, Malaysia and Australia, and offer them for sale through our online catalogue (where such goods are not distinguishable from pre-owned goods sold directly by us as we do not mention the individual seller’s identity), and, in addition to authentication, provide valuation, photography, carefully written product descriptions and fulfillment services. We currently charge a 10% to 30% commission on the sales price, depending on the sales price and category of the item being sold, which represents our revenue.

 

From January 1, 2015 to June 30, 2019, our Individual Sellers Marketplace had 51,751 unique sellers who had uploaded 444,107 SKUs with an aggregate listing value of US$547.8 million.

 

We believe our ecosystem, which is our seamless, integrated platform for buying and selling luxury goods, complemented by our offline channels and localization, increases customer engagement and maximizes the lifetime value of customers. As of June 31, 2019, most of our sellers through our C2C Individual Seller’s Marketplace were existing Reebonz members.

 

Sell Back Guarantee / Sell to Reebonz

 

In May 2017, we launched a feature called “Sell Back” through which existing Reebonz customers could sell to us, their pre-owned luxury item, in selected brands and product categories previously purchased on Reebonz for Reebonz Credits.

 

In May 2018, we expanded this feature and launched “Sell Back Guarantee” through which we provided a guaranteed sell back price upfront for a product if a customer wishes to sell it back to us within three months of purchase. The sell back price is determined based on a combination of factors including brand and product category, amongst others. We will continue to test and experiment on other product features to increase number of individual sellers in the ecosystem.

 

52

 

 

We plan to use data on past transactions, buyers’ style preferences and current wish lists to incentivize customers to monetize their unused items and encourage the purchase of pre-owned merchandise through our platform. Our “Sell Back” and “Sell Back Guarantee” feature encourages existing customers to sell back their selected Reebonz purchase(s) made through B2C Merchandise Business or White Glove Service for payment in Reebonz Credits to offset future purchases. Sell Back and Sell Back Guarantee are now available in Singapore, Malaysia, Indonesia, Thailand, Hong Kong, Taiwan, Australia, the Middle East, and the United States. We expanded the categories that we offer Sell Back and Sell Back Guarantee to from selected brands of handbags, small leather goods, shoes, jewelry, and accessories.

 

We launched our “Sell to Reebonz” feature in May 2019. This features allows all luxury consumers an alternative way to sell their pre-owned designer products directly to Reebonz in lieu of Reebonz Credits, which can be used to offset future purchases. With a pre-populated catalog, which currently includes over 30,000 designer items, consumers can browse the Sell Catalog, match their item, and exchange it for Reebonz Credits. Customers can receive credits within 24 hours based on the guaranteed price shown on the Sell Catalog, subject to final condition of the item. The service was initially launched in Singapore, and was expanded to Malaysia, Indonesia, Hong Kong, Taiwan, and Australia. Categories such as handbags, small leather goods, timepieces, and jewelry are currently in the catalog, for selected brands.

 

Comparison of Sell Back / Sell Back Guarantee and Sell to Reebonz

 

    Sell Back / Sell Back Guarantee   Sell to Reebonz
         
Item previously purchased on Reebonz Platform     ×
         
Sell Back Value Shown at Point of Purchase  

√*

* Sell Back value guaranteed for 3 months, after which the value changes

  ×
         
Payment Method to Seller   Reebonz Credits   Reebonz Credits
         
Categories (Selected Brands)  

●    Handbags

●    Small leather goods

●    Jewelry and accessories

●    Shoes

●    Timepieces

 

●    Handbags

●    Small leather goods

●    Jewelry and accessories

●    Timepieces

         
Countries of Operations  

●    Singapore

●    Malaysia

●    Indonesia

●    Thailand

●    Hong Kong

●    Taiwan

●    Australia

●    Middle East

●    United States

 

●    Singapore

●    Malaysia

●    Indonesia

●    Hong Kong

●    Taiwan

●    Australia

 

The diagram below illustrates our business model.

 

53

 

 

Integration of B2C Merchandise and B2C Marketplace Business and Sell Back Guarantee / Sell to Reebonz and C2C Marketplaces to reinforce the luxury ecosystem. The Reebonz Luxury Ecosystem incentivizes buyers to become sellers and sellers to become buyers, deepening the consumer connection and enhancing our supply of luxury goods.

 

 

We are capitalizing on a growing demand for luxury goods from a range of demographics across Asia Pacific that historically did not have a platform to purchase and sell luxury products, especially online.

 

54

 

 

 

Product Offerings

 

Product Categories: The new and pre-owned branded luxury goods we sell through our core B2C Merchandise Business include the following:

 

  handbags;

 

  small leather goods and other accessories;

 

  watches;

 

  shoes; and

 

  jewelry.

 

Through our C2C Individual Seller’s Marketplace and our B2C Merchant’s Marketplace, sellers also sell apparel as well as other products that are not listed above.

 

Pricing

 

Our goal is to make luxury goods accessible to a wide range of buyers.

 

For new and pre-owned luxury goods sold by us through our B2C Merchandise Business, we set pricing based on, among other things, quarterly analyses of market prices and market demand prepared by our in-house team. We use a dynamic multi-pricing model, which allows us to set different prices in different countries based on local demand and other pricing considerations. We centralize the pricing of our products to manage coordination of pricing decisions between our merchandising team in Singapore and our other country teams, which we believe better enables us to control prices across our markets. Prices are inclusive of shipping, taxes and duties, providing buyers with an “all in” price. We typically price our goods at discounts to retail prices, which may vary and typically range from 15% to 30% off original retail prices for new luxury goods and up to 70% off original retail prices for clearances and pre-owned goods, although for certain popular or “limited edition” items we may set the price at or above the original retail price. Our competitive pricing is made possible by cost savings achieved through our sourcing and business model, including volume discounts, the absence of significant physical retail space and related overhead costs and, in certain cases, sourcing goods from prior seasons’ collections.

 

55

 

 

For goods sold through Reebonz Closets, the seller sets an initial price, which buyers and sellers may negotiate using the chat function on our mobile app. The selling price is exclusive of taxes and any shipping costs, which is a flat fee paid by the buyer. For goods sold through our White Glove Service, we and the seller set a base sales price, and the buyer pays a final “all in” price that includes shipping, duties and taxes, which may vary from country to country. If an item sold through our White Glove Service remains unsold after 90 days, we send a system-generated notification e-mail to the seller suggesting a price reduction. In Singapore, should the product be unsold for more than 120-days, an automatic price reduction between 10% – 50% of the original price is applied to the product, depending on the product category and initial selling price.

 

For goods sold through our B2C Merchant’s Marketplace, prices are set by merchants, and buyers are provided with an “all in” price inclusive of shipping, taxes and duties, which may vary from country to country.

 

Customers

 

Our customer base is key to our success. Customers of our B2C Merchandise Business are primarily individual buyers of luxury goods. In our Marketplace Business, our customers are sellers of goods through our platform, from which we earn commissions from the sales of goods to buyers.

 

Buyers

 

Due to the nature of our products, most of our buyers are women. We believe women gradually increase spending on luxury goods as their age and incomes increase. The loyalty of our buyers is demonstrated by our sales to repeat buyers. We had 131,677 and 119,659 total buyers in 2017 and 2018, respectively, among which 41.3% and 41.7%, respectively, were repeat buyers. Orders placed by our repeat buyers accounted for 64.1% and 64.9% of our total orders in 2017 and 2018. In the six months ended June 30, 2018 and 2019, respectively, we had 62,224 and 55,953 total buyers, among which 45.3% and 45.6%, respectively, were repeat buyers. Orders placed by our repeat buyers accounted for 62.6% and 62.8%, respectively of our total orders in six months ended June 30, 2018 and 2019.

 

We believe that our ecosystem of a seamless, integrated platform for buying and selling luxury goods increases engagement and loyalty and maximizes the lifetime value of our customers.

 

To increase buyer retention, we have established a two-tier loyalty program for our most important, or VIP, members, namely Reebonz Solitaire and Reebonz Black. Loyalty status is achieved by spending beyond certain thresholds. Benefits include, among other things, exclusive access to new arrivals and sales events, accelerated accumulation of loyalty credits, extended return periods and assignment of dedicated Relationship Manager.

 

Sellers

 

In our C2C Individual Seller’s Marketplace, sellers are individuals with Reebonz memberships. As of June 30, 2019, most of our sellers through our C2C Individual Seller’s Marketplace were prior members. In 2018, our C2C Individual Seller’s Marketplace had 14,862 unique sellers. In our B2C Merchant’s Marketplace, our sellers include multi-brand boutiques, shops selling new and pre-owned items and vintage luxury dealers curated by us and located around the world. As of June 30, 2019, our B2C Merchant’s Marketplace had 152 merchants.

 

56

 

 

Our Internet Platform

 

Our internet platform consists of localized and international versions of our website and mobile app. In countries where we have a local website, customers are automatically redirected to our local website. 8 of our local websites are localized for language, currency, payment gateways, sales events, promotions and customer service, while 33 of our websites are localized for language and/or currency. Each localized website has localized pricing and allows for payments and refunds in local currency. Our mobile-optimized websites are localized in line with the local website. We also offer a mobile app that can be downloaded in 41 countries. The application is generally in English (except in South Korea, where it is in Korean) and can be set to the local language for Taiwan, Hong Kong, China and Thailand. The table below sets forth certain information about our websites in certain key markets as of June 30, 2019.

 

   Singapore  Hong Kong  Taiwan  South Korea  Malaysia  Australia  Indonesia  Thailand  China  N. America
Year of Launch  2009  2009  2010  2010  2011  2009  2011  2011  2016  2016
URL Address  reebonz.com/sg  reebonz.com/hk  reebonz.com/tw  reebonz.co.kr  reebonz.com/my  reebonz.com/au  reebonz.com/id  reebonz.com/th  reebonz.com/cn  reebonz.com/us
Languages  English Chinese  English
Chinese
  English
Chinese
  Korean  English
Chinese
  English Chinese  English  English  English
Chinese
  English
Chinese
Currency  SGD  HKD  NTD  KRW  MYR  AUD  IDR  THB  CNY  USD
Local Sales Events & Promotions  x  x  x  x  x  x  x  x  x  x
Local Payment Gateway  x  x  x  x  x  x  x  x  x  x
Local Customer Service Hotline  x  x  x  x  x  x  x  x  x  x
Local Returns & Refund Policies  x  x  x  x  x  x  x  x  x  x
Closets  x  x  x     x     x  x      
White Glove  x  x  x  x  x  x            
B2C Merchant’s Marketplace  x  x  x     x  x           x

 

57

 

 

Our Website

 

Our www.reebonz.com home page and most of our local websites are arranged with tabs for New In, Women, Men, Outlet, and Sale. In addition, most localized websites have a tab for selling. Below is an example of our South Korea localized website:

 

 

(1) Mobile apps are generally available in English language, except in South Korea where it is in Korean.
   
(2) Price for the same product varies across different countries; price variance not only results from currency conversion but also reflects supply and demand dynamics as well as taxes and duties.

 

Shopping. Authentic new and pre-owned goods that are sold directly by us through our B2C Merchandise Business, B2C Merchant’s Marketplace and White Glove Service are sold through limited-time, curated sales events displayed on our homepage or through open catalogue shopping, which allows buyers to search for goods using certain parameters, such as brand, price, gender and product type. On average, we launch eight to ten curated sales events per day for new luxury goods and one to two daily events for pre-owned goods across all countries we ship to, each of which typically last one to five days. We also host local online sales events on local websites in select countries from time to time. Each luxury item sold through our B2C Merchandise Business, B2C Merchant’s Marketplace and White Glove Service has a page with detailed product information, including product specifications, photographs, pricing and savings information, loyalty credits earned, sell back value if relevant, information about shipping and returns and our authenticity guarantee.

 

Selling. Individual sellers have two options for selling goods through our platform: our Reebonz Closets and White Glove Service. Currently, sellers in the Reebonz Closets begin the sales process through our mobile app where they can upload pictures of and information on the goods being sold. For our White Glove Service, sellers with goods that meet our selective criteria contact us through a form on our webpage, which our team commits to respond to usually within one business day, and if we elect to take the item on consignment, the item is offered for sale on platform.

 

Personalized Services. We offer personalized services to buyers through our account management system by allowing them to customize their payment and delivery preferences. Buyers can link their Reebonz accounts with other popular social networks such as Facebook and payment platforms such as Paypal. In certain cases, localized payment channels are available for our members. To further ease the checkout process for our repeat buyers, our database keeps track of their preferred delivery address, shipping method and payment option based on information previously provided to us. Buyers can also log in to keep track of their loyalty point balances and order status. We allow buyers to subscribe to future sales notices through text messages, e-mails and mobile “push” notifications. We believe these features improve the shopping experience of our buyers and help deepen their loyalty.

 

58

 

 

Our Mobile App

 

We believe buyers of luxury goods are increasingly shopping online through mobile devices. Accordingly, we have invested substantial resources to build a mobile platform dedicated to providing a superior shopping experience. Sales through our mobile platform have grown significantly since its launch in June 2010. 62.1% of our online revenue was generated from our mobile app in 2018, as compared to 55.1% in 2017. 68.6% of our online revenue was generated from our mobile app in the six months ended June 30, 2019. Our mobile app has more than 2 million downloads as of June 30, 2019.

 

The layout of products offered on our mobile app is designed to be intuitive and easy to use. We view our Android and iOS-based mobile app as a key part of our strategy of providing an ecosystem where buyers are able to become sellers and sellers are able to become buyers. Our mobile app allows buyers to quickly and efficiently search, view, select and purchase products and upload pictures and descriptions of items for sale through our Reebonz Closets. It facilitates interaction between buyers and sellers using our Reebonz Closets by allowing customers to create profiles, “like” and comment on products for sale by other customers. Buyers are also able to interact with sellers using our chat function and negotiate prices. Sellers using Reebonz Closets can also request courier pick up for items that have been sold. A direct dial feature on our mobile app allows customers to call our customer service with a single touch. We periodically send product promotional information to users using our mobile app through text messages and “push” notifications, including providing “push” notifications to users when new events are launched and targeted “push” notifications based on behavioral data.

 

Offline Channels

 

We believe our offline channels complement our online sales by enhancing our overall branding, attracting traditional offline shoppers, encouraging conversion to online shopping and providing online shoppers with the opportunity to physically view products, thereby helping us create an online-to-offline and offline-to-online omni-channel for buying and selling luxury goods. Our offline channels include retail lounges in Singapore, Malaysia and Australia, as well as pop-up events throughout the markets in which we operate. We also sell products to our VIP members through exclusive private sales coordinated by our relationship managers. Offline sales contributed 21.2%, 16.2%, and 15.9% of our revenue in 2017, 2018, and six months ended June 30, 2019 respectively.

 

Retail Lounges. To complement our internet platform, as of June 30, 2019, we have a retail lounge in Australia and a pop-up retail concept in Singapore. Our retail lounges provide us with a physical presence to provide customer service to our members, including the opportunity to touch and feel products viewed online before making a purchase, and with a physical venue for events and private sales. Our retail lounges are boutiques that are open to the public and attracts walk-in buyers, or where existing members may shop. Periodically, we offer member-only events in our retail lounges. Our retail lounges also function as buyer service centers where buyers can interact with our staff, and as collection locations for our White Glove Service. They carry both new and pre-owned products. We have established an omni-stock approach by which products in our retail lounges are continued to be displayed online, allowing the product to have the maximum chance of being purchased since a customer can purchase the stock in the offline channel or the online channel.

 

Pop-up events. Our pop-up events consist of events held for a limited time in certain cities as part of our marketing efforts. They are invitation-only events targeted at certain categories of buyers (such as holders of certain higher-tiered credit cards) and held at hotel ballrooms or other similar locations. Our pop-up events carry both new and pre-owned products. In certain circumstances, we also invite third-party merchants curated by us to sell at our pop-up events. We believe these events attract traditional offline shoppers and encourage their conversion to online shopping by making them aware of our online platform.

 

Reebonz Experience

 

We believe our emphasis on customer service creates a positive buying and selling experience and encourages repeat visits, purchases and sales through our platform.

 

59

 

 

Localization. We offer localized services to our buyers and sellers. Eight of our local websites are fully localized for language, currency, payment gateways, sale events, promotions and customer service, while 33 of our websites are localized for language and/or currency. Each localized website has localized pricing and allows payments and refunds in local currency. In addition, certain local websites have additional features offered only in certain key markets. For example, some of our localized websites have a feature through which buyers and sellers can speak with customer service representatives. In some countries, through our partnerships with 62 financial institutions, we offer qualified buyers free credit card installment plans, which allows buyers to pay for products through installment payments which are made to the partner bank, while we receive full payment up front. Through our third-party logistics providers, local collection spokes and collection locations, we offer sellers convenient pickup and drop-off for their items.

 

Relationship managers.

 

We provide our highest level of customer service to our Reebonz Black (our highest tier of membership) and selectively to our Reebonz Solitaire (our second highest tier of membership) programs. Each member of our loyalty programs has access to our team of dedicated relationship managers that can be contacted for any customer service needs. Our relationship managers perform a number of functions, such as assisting buyers with inquiries while providing support and recommendations to buyers, resolving returns, refunds and other buyer issues by e-mail, messages and telephone, educating buyers on products, helping to promote brands and offerings, and assisting members with to consign their products.

 

Sourcing and Authentication

 

We believe our multi-layer sourcing model is a key driver for the growth of our ecosystem. We source our new luxury goods from a wide range of suppliers, primarily comprising authorized distributors and luxury wholesalers. The pre-owned luxury goods we sell are sourced from individuals, pre-owned luxury dealers and auction houses. Our marketplaces enhance our product offerings by providing an extensive selection of products with a variety of SKUs, without the need for us to take on inventory risk.

 

B2C Merchandise Business.

 

Suppliers. Substantially all of the new luxury goods sold through our B2C Merchandise Business and offline channels are sourced from authorized distributors and luxury wholesalers (which either have direct relationships with brand owners or purchase from authorized distributors) in Europe, the United States and Asia. We generally seek to enter into framework supply agreements with our suppliers based on our standard form, and we purchase on the basis of purchase orders. We typically make prepayments to our suppliers at the time we place orders. We have implemented a systematic selection process for suppliers. Our merchandizing team is responsible for identifying potential suppliers globally based on our selection guidelines. Our supplier selection criteria include size, reputation, sales records in offline and online channels and product offerings. We also conduct screening and inspection of SKUs arriving at our Singapore logistics center for quality control and maintain the ability to return or reject low quality or counterfeit goods. In addition, we source pre-owned goods from individuals, pre-owned luxury dealers and auction houses. In each case, we pay our suppliers upfront.

 

Product selection. We have a merchandising team that considers and analyzes historical sales data, forward trends, seasonality and buyer demand and feedback. Our overall purchasing volume is also significantly affected by our sales targets and the budgets that we set. We pre-order certain models and for others we are able to make weekly purchases of in-season goods based on market demand. For pre-owned goods, our product selection is also based on the analysis performed by our merchandising team and product availability.

 

Inventory management. Goods sold through our B2C Merchandise Business are the only products that we purchase and hold as inventory. Title to the goods and risk of loss transfer to us upon pick up. We have implemented an inventory management system to manage the information related to stock receipt from suppliers, stock maintenance, stock preparation for delivery and stock deliveries. We also use an enterprise resource planning system to manage information related to procurement and quality control upon receipt, monitor and actively track sales data and invoicing. This system helps us make timely adjustments to our purchasing decisions and plans and minimizes excess inventory. When we have unsold inventory, we prioritize our sales efforts, such as through discounts, to drive inventory turnover.

 

60

 

 

Marketplace Business.

 

The products sold through our Reebonz Closets are sold directly by individual sellers that are our members, to other members in the same country. Our ateliers at the in-country collection spoke authenticate each relevant item sold through our Reebonz Closets prior to delivery to the buyer.

 

For our White Glove Service, we source pre-owned luxury goods from our members in the countries where we maintain our collection spokes, namely Singapore, Hong Kong, Taiwan, South Korea, Malaysia and Australia. We hold these products on a consignment basis and such products are not accounted for as inventory. Our ateliers at the collection spoke where the product is sourced authenticate each item sold through our White Glove Service prior to delivery to the buyer.

 

The products sold through our B2C Merchant’s Marketplace are sold directly by multi-brand boutiques, shops that sell new, pre-owned luxury goods and vintage luxury dealers curated by us from around the world, and brands. When selecting sellers for our B2C Merchant’s Marketplace, we use criteria which include the seller’s sales profile, product offering, number of SKUs available for sale and the brands offered with a focus primarily on quality over quantity.

 

Reebonz Ateliers

 

We have ateliers located at each collection spoke. We introduced our atelier service in 2013. Ateliers are full time appraisers, trained gemologists and watch technicians and worked with certain additional watch technicians who are not our employees. Each pre-owned item sold through our B2C Merchandise Business and our White Glove Service is authenticated, appraised, valued and graded by our ateliers at one of our collection spokes and then photographed with a description provided for display in our online catalogue, while every item sold through Reebonz Closets is authenticated and the condition of the item is also checked by our ateliers prior to delivery to the buyer. Currently, we are able to provide authentication services for 160 brands. Our ateliers have an average of 8 years of experience in the luxury goods industry. All pre-owned items, except for those sold through our B2C Merchant’s Marketplace, undergo testing, product identification and security tagging. Watches and certain categories of jewelry are provided with a certificate of authenticity and we issue a 12 month limited warranty for watches. For each type of luxury product, our ateliers are guided by an authentication checklist that provides a step-by-step guide to authenticating products. For certain luxury brands, we have developed more detailed in-house authentication manuals. We use this manual to train prospective ateliers and plan to set up an atelier training academy to grow the size of our team as our business grows.

 

Set forth below are examples of our jewelry and watch certifications:

 

 

61

 

 

 

Set forth below is a summary of the process of authenticating, appraising, valuing and grading for pre-owned items sold through our B2C Merchandise Business and items sold through our White Glove Service.

 

62

 

 

 

A comprehensive Reebonz atelier grading report is issued upon close examination and each pre-owned item sold through our B2C Merchandise Business and White Glove Service is given a grading of either “unused,” “pristine,” “mint,” or “good.” We also perform repairs and restorations on such products in order to deliver the best price to sellers and high quality to buyers. Our ateliers also support other areas of our business by, for example, providing authentication services to sellers and buyers using our B2C Merchant’s Marketplace in the event of a dispute and authenticating products sold on Reebonz Closets. Our ateliers also assist in quality checks on new products that we purchase from time to time. While historically it has been rare for one of our customers to allege the product they purchased was not authentic, we follow internal guidelines to verify claims that an item is not authentic, which may include our ateliers performing a second inspection of the item. Depending on the outcome of such inspections, we work with the customer to take appropriate steps to address the claim.

 

Payment and Fulfillment

 

Payment

 

We provide multiple payment options for buyers including online payment with credit cards, payment through major third-party online payment platforms, such as Adyen, Paypal and Alipay, payment through internet banking and through bank transfers. We allow payment in local currency in 27 countries. We are also able to process refunds through the same payment method used by the buyer and in the same currency in the form of Reebonz Credits.

 

In some countries, through our partnerships with 62 financial institutions, we offer buyers free credit card installment plans that allow buyers to pay for products through installment payments which are made to the partner bank, while we receive full payment up front. We believe the flexibility of our payment options and installment payment plan provide us with a competitive advantage in attracting buyers.

 

In addition, as part of our marketing efforts, we award Reebonz loyalty credits which can be used to deduct from the purchase price of our products. Furthermore, buyers can use the account balances accumulated from prior product refunds or sales to make future purchases.

 

63

 

 

Fulfillment

 

We use a mix of third-party international and local delivery companies to ensure reliable and timely pick up from, and delivery to, our customers. We leverage our large-scale operations and reputation to obtain favorable contractual terms from our third-party logistics providers. We regularly monitor and review the logistics providers’ performance and compliance with contractual terms. We typically negotiate and enter into logistics agreements on an annual basis.

 

Our logistics network consists of one centralized logistics center and six logistics centers located in Australia, Indonesia, South Korea, Malaysia, Taiwan and Thailand, all of which also serve as our collection spokes. In Singapore, our management system enables us to closely monitor each step of the fulfillment process from the time a purchase order is confirmed and the product stocked in our logistics centers, up to when the product is packaged and picked up by the delivery service provider for delivery to a customer. Inventory is bar-coded and tracked through our management information system, allowing real-time monitoring of inventory levels and item tracking. Our logistics center management system in Singapore is specifically designed to support the frequent curated sales events on our internet platform and a large volume of inventory turnover.

 

For pre-owned items, we have seven collection spokes which also function as logistics centers, in Singapore, Taiwan, Indonesia, South Korea, Malaysia, Australia and Thailand. These collection spokes serve as collection locations for our White Glove Service, as warehouses to store pre-owned items until they are sold and as authentication points in countries where we have set up Reebonz Closets. We also work with several networks of luxury bag spas in Singapore, to serve as collection points for our customers to drop off their pre-owned items for consignment.

 

We have ateliers located at seven of our collection spokes to provide authentication, appraisal, valuation and grading services as well as repair and restoration services. We also partner with logistics providers to provide sellers with an extensive network of more than 600 collection locations as of June 30, 2019 to supplement our collection spokes. In 2017, we completed the construction of a 215,000 square foot headquarters that also houses our primary logistics center in Singapore specifically designed for our luxury goods business.

 

Payment and Fulfillment by Business Line

 

B2C Merchandise Business. For the majority of items sold through our B2C Merchandise Business, shipments from suppliers first arrive at our centralized logistics center in Singapore, following which quality checks are performed by our team. In the case of pre-owned products, the product may be delivered to a collection spoke in the country where the product is sourced. Once an order is received, the product is selected from our inventory by our staff, packaged, and then delivered directly to the buyer from our Singapore logistics center or collection spoke. In certain cases, we also aggregate and collectively send certain SKUs to collection spokes for dispatch to buyers. If a buyer returns a product within the applicable return period, our third-party logistics provider will pick up the item or the item can be dropped off at a collection location and we refund the payment to the purchaser.

 

Marketplace Business.

 

For our B2C Merchant’s Marketplace, once the boutique receives the order, the product is selected by the merchant, packaged in Reebonz branded packaging, fulfilled by our third party logistics provider and then delivered directly to the buyer from the merchant location. All payments are processed by us and held for a specified period given the possibility of returns, and within a mutually agreed period after the applicable return period has expired we remit the payment, less our commission and shipping, duties and taxes payable, to the merchant.

 

For our Reebonz Closets, once a seller and buyer agree on a sales price and the sale is confirmed in our system, the seller then inputs the pickup date and time into our mobile app. The item is then picked up by our logistics provider and delivered to one of our collection spokes for authentication. The seller may also choose to drop off the item at one of our collection spokes or collection locations. Once authenticated, we then ship the item to the buyer through our logistics provider. Currently, items in our Reebonz Closets may only be bought and sold in the same country.

 

For our White Glove Service, once acceptance of a request to sell a pre-owned product is confirmed, we provide the seller with the option of dropping the product off at one of our collection locations or complimentary pick up by us through our logistics providers. At our collection spoke, the item is authenticated, appraised, valued and graded by our ateliers and then photographed and a description is provided for display in our online catalogue. Once a purchase order is received, the item is packaged and then delivered directly to the buyer from our relevant collection spoke. All payments are processed by us and held for a specified period given the possibility of returns, and within a period of up to seven business days after the applicable return period has expired we remit the payment, less our commission and shipping, duties and taxes payable, to the seller. We maintain records of all transactions, which we share with the relevant authorities if there is any allegation or investigation into possible stolen or counterfeit goods being traded on our platform.

 

64

 

 

Technology Platform

 

Our technology systems are designed to enhance efficiency and scalability, and play an important role in the success of our business. We rely on a combination of internally developed proprietary technologies and commercially available licensed technologies to improve our websites and management systems in order to optimize every aspect of our operations for the benefit of buyers and sellers.

 

We have adopted a micro-service architecture that is built on top of our highly scalable cloud infrastructure that spans across multiple data centers to ensure its availability at all times. We have full redundancy at each data center to ensure information is properly stored and backed up.

 

Our front-end modules facilitate the online shopping processes of buyers. Our front-end modules are supported by our content distribution network with dynamic image optimization on the fly (which allows images to be optimized based on the user’s connection speed), providing buyers with quicker access to the product display they are interested in, and facilitating faster processing of their purchases. We have designed our systems to cope with our maximum peak concurrent visitors with a view to providing a consistently smooth online shopping experience. Our mid-end modules support our daily administrative and business operations and our back-end modules support our supply chain and greatly enhance the efficiency of our operations.

 

We have developed centralized payment services allowing for multiple localized payment methods. We have also developed a unique and customized fraud detection algorithm as well and have implemented fraud prevention measures. Our fraud detection and prevention algorithm triggers email alerts to our internal fraud detection team based on certain red flags (e.g. suspicious customer behavior or certain types of credit cards that are considered high risk) that our system automatically detects, so that our team can review and follow up.

 

In order to manage cybersecurity risks, we have hired third parties to manage and monitor the security of networks, servers, and applications against distributed denial-of-service (DDOS), hacking and sniffing attacks. In addition, we have also adopted rigorous security policies and measures to protect our proprietary data and customer information.

 

Our business intelligence systems enable us to effectively gather, analyze and use internally-generated customer behavior and transaction data. We regularly use this information in planning our marketing initiatives for upcoming curated sales and merchandizing for our online shopping mall. Our business intelligence systems are configured to support decision-making intelligence such as dashboard, operation, operational analysis, market analysis, sales forecasts and products such as precision marketing, and other application-oriented products that facilitate data-driven decision-making and increase our product sales.

 

We have developed most of our key business modules in-house. We also license software from reputable third-party providers, and work closely with these third-party providers to customize the software for our operations. We have implemented a number of measures to prevent data failure and loss. We have developed a disaster tolerant system for our key business modules which includes real-time data mirroring, real-time data back-up and redundancy and load balancing.

 

We plan to use the blockchain technology to provide authentication capabilities for luxury goods, using cryptographic NFC chips and a decentralized marketplace.

 

65

 

 

Marketing

 

Our marketing objectives include enhancing our brand recognition, enhancing our trusted reputation among buyers and sellers, increasing word-of-mouth referrals, increasing organic traffic and stimulating repeat purchases. In addition, we aim to encourage further participation in our ecosystem for buying and selling luxury goods by marketing to existing customers in order to encourage buyers to become sellers and sellers to become buyers. In designing our marketing initiatives, our marketing team looks at customers at varying income levels and browsing and purchasing patterns. Specifically, we analyze customer acquisition, retention, length of relationship and attrition. We look at different customer groups and analyze the customer acquisition cost through marketing activities in the context of the revenue each group of customers is likely to provide.

 

We conduct marketing activities online through major search engines, portals, social media, online video and other major websites. We also conduct marketing activities specifically aimed at customers through mobile devices. Using mobile device IDs or user profiles, we track browsing and buying behavior and use the information to create a customized browsing experience in order to market to existing buyers. We aim to keep our customer base engaged by providing reminders of upcoming events and providing special mobile-only offers. We also use messaging channels such as WhatsApp and Line, to engage with our customer base and send them notifications on special events and promotions for the messaging application community.

 

To enhance our brand awareness, we also have engaged in brand promotion activities such as partnerships with major banks and brand ambassadors, including local celebrities, reputable fashion stylists and bloggers. We engage in ad campaigns (including television commercials) and social media engagements to build awareness and trust in our brand. In four countries we have a multi-year online luxury shopping partnership with MasterCard. We also send “push” notifications to buyers using our mobile app, notifying them of certain sales events. In addition, we engage in brand-building campaigns, such as promotional contests with prizes and our viral campaigns, such as “Reebonz Mobil” where we temporarily converted a truck into a mobile luxury boutique.

 

We also provide various incentives to our existing customers to increase their engagement. Our buyers earn loyalty credits for each purchase they make in our B2C Merchandise Business, B2C Merchant’s Marketplace and White Glove Service, and may redeem the credits towards purchases made of products sold by us in our B2C Merchandise Business, B2C Merchant’s Marketplace, White Glove Service and Reebonz Closets. We believe that an effective form of marketing is to continually enhance our customer experience, as customer satisfaction engenders word-of-mouth referrals and additional purchases and sales. We use a personalized approach based on a member’s browsing and buying behavior to provide notifications on products or promotions specific to their behavior.

 

We believe we have been able to build a large base of loyal buyers primarily by providing superior customer experience, including through our loyalty programs and conducting marketing and brand promotion activities. We provide various incentives to buyers to increase their spending and loyalty, and we send e-mails to buyers periodically with targeted product recommendations or events and to customers who have been inactive for certain periods of time.

 

We had 119,659 and 55,953 total buyers in 2018 and six months ended June 30, 2019, which 41.7% and 45.6%, were repeat buyers.

 

In addition to our promotional and brand building activities, we market to individual sellers by reaching out to experienced sellers using other platforms and by marketing to existing buyers and encouraging them to become sellers through our various Sell Back features. For our B2C Merchant’s Marketplace, we plan to conduct targeted marketing activities aimed at merchants, brands, and designers curated by us. Once we identify a seller that we believe would made a good addition to our marketplace, we will reach out to the seller about the possibility of selling through our platform.

 

As of June 30, 2019, our sales and marketing team consisted of 22 employees, located in Singapore and our other regional offices. We incurred US$1.9 million of marketing expenses for the six months ended June 30, 2019.

 

66

 

 

Competition

 

The luxury goods market, both online and offline, is very competitive, however, there is no direct competitor that offers the ecosystem of buying and selling, new and pre-owned luxury products in our Core Asia Pacific Market. Our primary competitors include global and regional online general retailers and marketplaces, global and regional online fashion retailers, luxury department retailers’ online stores, luxury brand owners’ online stores, regional multi-label concept retailers, and specialist online luxury retailers, such as Yoox Net-A-Porter and Farfetch. Our primary offline competitors include pre-owned luxury retailers, auction houses selling luxury goods and traditional brick-and-mortar retail channels including those operated by the luxury brands themselves and department stores. We believe we compete primarily on the basis of:

 

  geographic focus in Southeast Asia and Asia Pacific;

 

  focus on luxury segment only;

 

  ability to identify products in demand among consumers and source these products on favorable terms from suppliers;

 

  providing an ecosystem to buy and sell luxury goods;

 

  providing new and pre-owned products;

 

  breadth and quality of product offerings;

 

  pricing and local payment options;

 

  website features and mobile app;

 

  value-added services such as authentication;

 

  localization, customer service, fulfillment capabilities and returns and refunds processing; and

 

  reputation among suppliers as well as among both buyers and sellers of luxury goods.

 

We believe that our size, market positioning and platform give us a competitive advantage in the markets where we operate. However, some of our current and potential competitors may have longer operating histories, larger customer bases, better brand recognition, more reliable sourcing, including from luxury brand owners directly, stronger platform management and fulfillment capabilities and greater financial, technical and marketing resources than we do. See “Risk Factors — Risks Relating to Our Business — We operate in a competitive environment and may lose market share and customers if we fail to compete effectively.”

 

Employees

 

As of June 30, 2019 we had a total of 241 employees. The following tables give breakdowns of our employees as of June 30, 2019 by function and by region:

 

Function   Number     Region   Number  
Fulfillment     125     Singapore     123  
Technology     40     Thailand     2  
General and Administrative     54     Malaysia     5  
Sales and Marketing     22     Australia     9  
            Hong Kong     3  
            Japan     7  
            Taiwan     8  
            Indonesia     46  
            South Korea     35  
            USA     3  
TOTAL     241      TOTAL     241  

 

We place great emphasis on our corporate culture and seek to maintain consistently high standards everywhere we operate and to help us to realise our goals. We invest significant resources in the recruitment of employees to support our business operations. In 2019 and beyond, we plan to recruit additional employees in connection with the increasing staffing needs of our technology department, the expansion of our Marketplace Business and for our digital marketing team.

 

67

 

 

We provide a number of employee benefits, including social insurance funds, a medical insurance plan, a work-related injury insurance plan and a maternity insurance plan, and as required by local regulations, a mandatory provident fund.

 

We enter into labor contracts with our employees. We also enter into confidentiality and non-compete agreements with certain of our employees and senior management. The non-compete restricted period typically expires one to two years after the termination of employment, subject to local laws.

 

We believe that we maintain a good working relationship with our employees, and we have not experienced any major labor disputes.

 

Facilities

 

We have our headquarters in Singapore and logistics centers in Singapore and six other cities. The table below summarizes our facilities as of June 30, 2019.

 

Country   Location   Gross Floor
Area (square
meter)
  Use   Lease period
(Day/Month/Year)
Start   End
Singapore   5 Tampines North Drive 5 Reebonz Building Singapore 528548   19,974   Headquarters, office space, operations and logistics center   01/12/2014   30/11/2044
Korea   Samjin Building 7F, 113 Achasanro, Seongdong-gu, Seoul, Korea   709   Office, Warehouse   01/06/2019   31/05/2021
Korea   Daereuk Building 5F 501, 636-43, Deongchon-dong, Gangseo-gu, Seoul, Korea   129   Invitree Office, Warehouse   24/09/2019   23/09/2020
Australia   Shop G01, 570 George Street, Sydney, NSW 2000 , Australia   208   Retail   18/09/2015   16/09/2020
Indonesia   Prince Center Building, 3rd Floor Jl. Jend. Sudirman Kav. 3-4 Jakarta 10220   720   Office, Reebonz Space   18/12/2018   17/12/2019
Malaysia   100.3.007 & 100.3.009 129 Office Block J Jaya One No 72A Jalan Universiti 46200 Petaling Jaya, Selangor Darul Ehsan, Malaysia   144   Office Space, operations and logistics center   01/09/2019   31/08/2021
Japan   Reebonz Japan KK 2-15-3 Yoshikawa Bldg 2F Hakataekimae Hakata-ku Fukuoka Japan 812-0011   48   Office Space and operations   01/06/2018   31/05/2020
Thailand   Unit 903, 9th Floor RSU Tower, 571 Sukhumvit Road Klong Ton Nua, Wattana, Bangkok 10110, Thailand   13   Office Space, operations and logistics center   01/10/2019   30/09/2020
Taiwan   3F-1 No.97 Songren Rd, Xinyi District, Taipei City 110, Taiwan   103   Office Space, operations and logistics center   01/01/2018   31/12/2019
USA   Galvanize Ste 400, 1644 Platte St, Denver CO80202   N/A Shared Space   Office Space and operations   No Fixed Term

 

68

 

 

To expand our warehouse space and accommodate future growth, we constructed a new 215,000 square foot headquarters in Singapore, which was completed in 2017. Our new headquarters houses our logistics center, which is specifically designed for our luxury goods business, increasing our warehouse space in Singapore by nearly threefold. We spent a total of US$28.0 million on land acquisition, construction and warehousing equipment purchase in connection with this project, which included US$5.4 million paid in 2014 for the land rights for our headquarters. We financed this project through a loan facility of US$20.7 million granted by a local bank in Singapore and cash from operations.

 

Intellectual Property

 

We regard our trademarks, copyrights, domain names, know-how, proprietary technologies, and similar intellectual property as critical to our success, and we rely on copyright and trademark law and confidentiality, invention assignment and non-compete agreements with our employees and others to protect our proprietary rights. As of June 30, 2019, we owned one computer software copyright, held one perpetual license agreement to use a software platform relating to various aspects of our operations and maintained 10 trademark registrations in Singapore and 63 trademark registrations outside Singapore. We had 17 trademark applications pending outside Singapore. As of June 30, 2019, we had 46 domain name registrations, including reebonz.com, among others.

 

Insurance

 

We maintain various insurance policies to safeguard against risks and unexpected events. We have purchased industrial all-risk property insurance covering our inventory and fixed assets such as equipment, furniture and office facilities. We maintain inventory insurance to cover items held on consignment through our White Glove Service. We also maintain marine insurance covering our inventory in transit. We maintain public liability insurance for our business activities. We also provide work injury compensation insurance and medical insurance for our employees. Additionally, we provide group hospitalization insurance for all employees and specialist coverage for our management staff. We also cover our board of directors through the directors and officers liability insurance. We consider our insurance coverage to be sufficient for our business operations.

 

Legal Proceedings

 

From time to time, we may be involved in legal proceedings in the ordinary course of our business. We are currently not a party to any material legal or administrative proceedings.

 

Government Regulation

 

We are subject to laws and regulations in the jurisdictions where we conduct our business. This section summarizes certain rules and regulations that significantly affect our business activities.

 

Singapore

 

Broadcasting Act

 

All internet content providers (all persons who maintain websites), including us, are governed by an automatic class license, pursuant to the Broadcasting Act of Singapore (Chapter 28) and the Broadcasting (Class License) Notification. Internet content providers must comply with internet codes of practice as the Singapore Media Development Authority, or the MDA, may issue from time to time, and must ensure that its services are not used for any purpose or contain any program that is against the public interest, public order or national harmony or offends good taste or decency. Internet content providers also have obligations to assist certain investigations of the MDA and remove programs included in its service where the MDA informs the licensee that the program is contrary to a code of practice, is against public interest, public order or national harmony or offends against good taste or decency.

 

The Personal Data Protection Act 2012

 

The Personal Data Protection Act 2012 of Singapore, or the PDPA, generally requires organizations to give notice and obtain consents prior to collection, use or disclosure of personal data (data, whether true or not, about an individual who can be identified from that data or other accessible information). The PDPA also imposes various obligations upon organizations, or the Main Data Protection Obligations, that relate to, among other things, the access to, the correction of, the protection of, the retention of and the transfer of, personal data. In addition, the PDPA requires organizations to check national “Do-Not-Call” registries prior to sending marketing messages addressed to Singapore telephone numbers through voice calls, fax or text message.

 

The PDPA specifies various offenses that apply for failure to comply with PDPA requirements, which could apply to both organizations and their officers, depending on the circumstances. The PDPA also created a regulatory agency, the Personal Data Protection Commission, which has the power to give directions to organizations for compliance with the PDPA, including the power to require an organization to pay a penalty of up to S$1 million for breach of PDPA requirements. Apart from this, an individual has a right of private action against an organization for breach of the Main Data Protection Obligations if the individual suffers loss or damage directly as a result of a contravention of the Main Data Protection Obligations by an organization. The relief which a court may grant includes damages, injunctions and relief by way of declaration.

 

69

 

 

Laws affecting the sale of goods to consumers in Singapore

 

The Unfair Contract Terms Act of Singapore (Chapter 396), or the UCTA, provides that exclusion clauses in standard terms of business or where one of the contracting parties is a consumer are subject to a condition of “reasonableness.” Also, when a business deals with a consumer, the business cannot render contractual performance substantially different from what was reasonably expected of it, or render no performance at all in respect of the whole or part of any contractual obligation. The Sale of Goods Act of Singapore (Chapter 393), or the SOGA, regulates the sale of goods in Singapore. The SOGA implies certain terms into contracts of sale of goods, which include implied conditions that the seller has or will have the right to sell the goods and that goods supplied are of satisfactory quality. The SOGA also provides that where a seller wrongfully neglects or refuses to deliver goods, the buyer may sue for non-delivery. The damages available are the estimated loss directly and naturally resulting from the seller’s breach of contract in the ordinary course of events. Rights, liabilities and implied conditions arising under a contract of sale pursuant to SOGA may be excluded or varied by contract, subject to the requirements of the UCTA.

 

The Consumer Protection (Fair Trading) Act of Singapore (Chapter 52A), or the CPFTA, provides a buyer who has entered into a transaction involving an unfair practice with the right to bring an action against the supplier. This right to bring an action does not apply where the remedy or relief sought exceeds S$30,000. Unfair practices include situations where the supplier does or says anything which reasonably would result in the consumer being deceived or misled, or where the supplier makes false claims as to origin, performance characteristics or method of manufacture of the product.

 

The CPFTA also provides that if goods do not conform to the applicable contract at the time of delivery, the buyer would have the right to require the seller to repair or replace the goods, reduce the amount to be paid for the sale by an appropriate amount or to rescind the contract with regard to the goods in question. Goods which do not conform to the applicable contract at any time within the period of six months from the date on which the goods were delivered will be regarded as not having conformed to the applicable contract at the time of delivery.

 

Electronic Transactions Act

 

The Electronic Transactions Act of Singapore (Chapter 88), or the ETA, makes clear that, in general, transactions conducted using paper documents and transactions conducted using electronic communications will be treated equally by the law. While the ETA allows for certain rebuttable presumptions in connection with electronic transactions, which are generally helpful to us, we do not rely on these rebuttable presumptions on our website or platform in Singapore.

 

The Secondhand Goods Dealers Act

 

As a seller of pre-owned luxury goods, we are subject to the Secondhand Goods Dealers Act (Chapter 288A) of Singapore, or the SGDA, which requires dealers of certain secondhand goods, including watches and certain types of jewelry, to obtain a license or an exemption from the Singapore police before commencing operations. As of the date hereof, we have successfully registered and obtained exemption from the requirement to obtain a license for the purpose of dealing in secondhand goods on our website, www.reebonz.com, and we are currently applying for an exemption for our retail lounge. Any person who deals in secondhand goods except under and in accordance with the conditions of a license issued under the SGDA would be guilty of an offense. Any person who is guilty of an offense under the SGDA would be liable on conviction to a fine not exceeding S$20,000 or to imprisonment for a term not exceeding 12 months, or to both.

 

In addition, dealers of secondhand goods are also required to comply with other rules of the SGDA and the regulations thereunder, including but not limited to record keeping requirements. Further, under the SGDA, if any person is convicted in any court of an offense under Chapter XVII of the Penal Code (Chapter 224) in respect of any property, and it appears to the court that the property has been sold to a secondhand goods dealer, such as our company, the court may, in certain circumstances, order the delivery of the property to the original owner either on payment to the secondhand goods dealer of the amount of the purchase price or any part thereof, or without payment thereof or of any part thereof, depending on the circumstances. The court may also adjourn the proceedings for the attendance of the secondhand goods dealer and may summon the secondhand goods dealer to attend the adjourned hearing. If after hearing the secondhand goods dealer, the court is satisfied that the secondhand goods dealer, before purchasing the property referred to above, (i) ought reasonably to have known or suspected that the property was stolen property, and (ii) did not exercise due care and diligence to ascertain that the property was not stolen property, the court may order the secondhand goods dealer to pay a financial penalty not exceeding S$2,000.

 

The Trade Marks Act

 

The Trade Marks Act (Chapter 332), or the TMA, establishes the law for trademarks in Singapore, including infringement of registered trademarks and the position of parallel-imported luxury goods. There are civil reliefs (such as injunction or damages) and criminal sanctions (such as fines) stipulated in the TMA for the import, sale or other commercial dealings in goods that infringe or counterfeit the registered trademarks belonging to brand owners.

 

70

 

 

Copyright Act

 

The Copyright Act (Chapter 63) sets out the protection of literary, dramatic, artistic and musical works, as well as entrepreneurial works (published editions, sound recordings, cinematograph films, broadcasts, performances and cable programs). Generally, only the owner of a copyright work has the right to reproduce, publish, perform, communicate and adapt his work, unless consent or authorization to do these acts have been obtained. The term of protection varies according to the type of work involved, and infringement of copyright will arise where there has been substantial reproduction or adaptation of the work. Company names are generally not regarded as literary works although brand logos are capable of protection as artistic works.

 

Australia

 

The sale and marketing of branded products to the Australian market by us, either through our Australian or non-Australian websites or through our Australian subsidiary’s operation of a physical store, is generally permitted subject to compliance with various laws and regulations in Australia. In particular our operations in Australia are subject to compliance with laws aimed at advancing consumer rights, protecting consumer privacy, regulating direct marketing practices, promoting fair trading, protecting the rights of owners of intellectual property and regulating the importation of goods in to Australia. In general, these laws prevent the making of misrepresentations in relation to products being offered for sale and the unauthorized sale of products that contravene intellectual property rights, such as the sale of branded products in the Australian market in circumstances where the brand owner has not consented to the application of its brand on products for sale in the Australian market. Further, Australian privacy laws govern the collection, handling and protection of personal information by a company. Our operations in Australia are also subject to Australian direct marketing laws that regulate how personal information can and cannot be used by a company for direct marketing purposes. Our Australian sales are also affected by taxation legislation and other fiscal policies adopted by the Australian government. In particular, sales of stock, financing and administration or management service arrangements between us and our Australian subsidiary must be consistent with the relevant provisions of Australian taxation laws relating to transfer pricing.

 

Consumer Guarantees

 

Consumer guarantees under the Australian Consumer Law, or ACL, apply in Australia for the supply of goods to consumers where (i) the price is less than AUD$40,000 or (ii) the goods are of a type ordinarily acquired for personal, domestic or household consumption. Relevant consumer guarantees include that the goods are of acceptable quality (fit for purpose), acceptable in appearance and finish, free from defects, safe and durable. An importer may be liable directly to the consumer if the manufacturer has no place of business in Australia. Liability for consumer guarantees cannot be excluded or limited.

 

Misleading and Deceptive Conduct and Passing Off

 

In general, Australian laws prevent the making of misrepresentations in relation to products being offered for sale in Australia. Under the ACL, it is unlawful for a person or corporation, in trade or commerce, to engage in conduct that is misleading and deceptive or likely to mislead and deceive. The sale in Australia of goods that were intended by the manufacturer for sale only overseas has the potential to give rise to representations that are misleading or deceptive, particularly where there is a difference in quality in the goods. In addition, the common law tort of passing off forms part of the law in Australia and prevents a person from misrepresenting that his goods are those of another trader where that misrepresentation is likely to deceive the public that the goods are the other’s party’s goods, and where the first trader suffers damage to its business, reputation or goodwill as a result of the misrepresentation.

 

Hong Kong

 

Sale of Goods Ordinance & Control of Exemption Clauses Ordinance

 

The Sale of Goods Ordinance (Chapter 26 of the Laws of Hong Kong), or the SGO, implies certain terms into contracts of sale of goods in Hong Kong, which include implied conditions that the seller has or will have the right to sell the goods and that goods supplied are of satisfactory quality, fit for the buyer’s purposes, match the descriptions provided by the seller and any samples. The SGO also provides for circumstances where buyers may be deemed to have accepted goods and the actions that a buyer may take for any breach of contract by a seller.

 

Where any right, duty or liability would arise under a contract of sale of goods by implication of the SGO, the contract may (subject to the Control of Exemption Clauses Ordinance (Chapter 17 of the Laws of Hong Kong), or the CECO) be negated or varied by express agreement, or by the course of dealings between the parties, or by usage if the usage is such as to bind both parties to the contract. The CECO provides that exemption clauses in standard terms of business or where one of the contracting parties is a consumer in Hong Kong may have no effect to void a claim against the seller if such clauses are proved to be unreasonable.

 

71

 

 

Unconscionable Contracts Ordinance

 

The Unconscionable Contracts Ordinance (Chapter 458 of the Laws of Hong Kong), or the UCO, applies to a contract for the sale of goods or supply of services in which one of the contracting parties is a consumer. Under the UCO, if it is proven that the contract or any part thereof was unconscionable (unfair or not sensible) in circumstances relating to the contract at the time when it was made, the Hong Kong courts may refuse to enforce the contract, to only enforce the other provisions of the contract without the unconscionable part, or to limit the application of, or to revise or alter, any unconscionable part of the contract so as to avoid any unconscionable result.

 

Trade Descriptions Ordinance

 

The Trade Descriptions Ordinance (Chapter 362 of the Laws of Hong Kong), or the TDO, prohibits false trade descriptions, false, misleading or incomplete information, false marks and misstatements in respect of goods provided in the course of trade and false trade descriptions in respect of services supplied by traders in Hong Kong. Generally speaking, violations of the TDO are considered to be an offense under Hong Kong law, unless a defense is available.

 

Electronic Transactions Ordinance

 

The Electronic Transactions Ordinance (Chapter 553 of the Laws of Hong Kong) in general accords electronic record and electronic signature the same legal status as that of their paper-based counterparts.

 

Laws relating to intellectual property

 

The sale of branded products to the Hong Kong market by us either through our websites or through our Hong Kong subsidiary’s operation of offline pop-up events in Hong Kong are subject to compliance with laws aimed at protecting the rights of owners of intellectual property (including the Trade Marks Ordinance (Chapter 559 of the laws of Hong Kong), the Copyright Ordinance (Chapter 528 of the laws of Hong Kong) and the Registered Designs Ordinance (Chapter 522 of the laws of Hong Kong)). In general, these laws offer protection to brand owners that own intellectual property rights that are contravened by any unauthorized sale of the branded products in the Hong Kong market.

 

Laws of tort in respect of passing-off, procuring a breach of contract and conversion

 

The sale of branded products to the Hong Kong market by us either through our websites or through our Hong Kong subsidiary’s operation of offline pop-up events in Hong Kong are also subject to compliance with the common laws of tort in respect of passing-off (where a person misrepresents that his goods are those of another person and the misrepresentation is likely to so deceive or confuse the public, resulting in the latter to suffer damage to its business, reputation or goodwill), procuring a breach of contract (where there is a contractual arrangement in place between the trademark owner and an authorized dealer restricting the latter from selling the goods for re-sale outside a particular territory, a person who takes part in acts effecting the breach of that contractual arrangement in a concerted effort with such authorized dealer commits a tort) and conversion (where a person purchases stolen goods from his suppliers and sells them, even if that person neither knows nor ought to have known that it is acting unlawfully, or that person acts entirely without negligence).

 

Personal Data (Privacy) Ordinance

 

The Personal Data (Privacy) Ordinance (Chapter 486 of the Laws of Hong Kong), or the PDPO, covers any personal data that relates to a living person and can be used to identify that person, which exists in a form in which access or processing is practicable. It applies to a data user who, either alone or jointly or in common with other persons, controls the collection, holding, processing or use of the data. Pursuant to the PDPO, Hong Kong’s Privacy Commissioner for Personal Data, or the Commissioner, can investigate complaints of breaches of the PDPO, as well as initiate investigations and, at the conclusion of an investigation, issue an enforcement notice against the data user, requiring it to take remedial action. The Commissioner can institute civil or criminal proceedings against any data user that fails to comply with an enforcement notice, depending on the nature of the breach.

 

Contravention of an enforcement notice is an offense which could result in a maximum fine of HK$50,000 and imprisonment for two years.

 

The PDPO also criminalizes, among others, misuse or inappropriate use of personal data in direct marketing activities; non-compliance with data access request and unauthorized disclosure of personal data obtained without data user’s consent. The maximum penalty for breach under the PDPO is a fine of up to HK$1,000,000 and imprisonment for up to five years.

 

72

 

 

Theft Ordinance

 

Pursuant to section 24 of the Theft Ordinance (Chapter 210 of the laws of Hong Kong), a person handles stolen goods if (otherwise than in the course of the stealing) knowing or believing them to be stolen goods he dishonestly receives the goods, or dishonestly undertakes or assists in their retention, removal, disposal or realization by or for the benefit of another person, or if he arranges to do so.

 

Such person shall be guilty of an offense and shall be liable on conviction to imprisonment for up to 14 years.

 

South Korea

 

Act on Consumer Protection in Electronic Commerce Transactions, etc.

 

The Act on Consumer Protection in Electronic Commerce Transactions, etc., or the E-Commerce Consumer Protection Act, provides a general framework for regulation of e-commerce businesses, and sets forth legal requirements with the goal of providing consumer protection for sale of goods and services by any means not involving direct, face-to-face contact between a seller and a buyer. This is referred to as “distance selling,” which includes transactions conducted through telecommunications and any other means of distance communication, such as the internet. Under the E-Commerce Consumer Protection Act, a business seeking to engage in distance selling must comply with the following legal requirements:

 

Reporting requirements: The distance selling trader must report information including, among other things, its contact details, internet domain name and the location of its host server to the Korea Fair Trade Commission, or the KFTC, or other relevant government entities;

 

Notification requirements to customers: The distance selling trader must notify and provide its counterparty with documents (electronic or otherwise) containing basic descriptions of the transactions prior to supplying or providing the products or services, and the information contained in such documents needs to include, among others (i) details of sellers and suppliers, (ii) name, type and contents of as well as other information relating to the products or services being sold, (iii) pricing and payment information, (iv) time and method of supply, (v) method of, deadline for and effect of withdrawal of the order or termination of the contract (including standard form of documents for such withdrawal or termination), (vi) terms and procedures regarding return, exchange, guarantees, refund and compensation in case of delay in refund of the products or services, (vii) certain types of customer service policies, (viii) standard terms and conditions for the transaction (including methods of how to find such standard terms and conditions to verify them), (ix) in case of distance selling under which the consumer pays all or part of the products’ price in advance of the products or services, the fact that such consumer may use certain escrow payment as specified in the E-Commerce Consumer Protection Act and (x) other terms of transaction that may affect the consumer’s decision on the purchase;

 

Timing requirements: The distance selling trader must take action on the supply of the products or services within seven days, or three business days if advance payment is made (or any other period mutually agreed between the distance selling trader and the consumer) from the date the consumer placed the order. If the distance selling trader becomes aware of any problem in the supply of the products or services ordered, it must promptly notify the consumer of the reason, and in case of distance selling with advance payment, must refund, or take measures necessary for such refund, the amount paid by the consumer within three business days from the date of payment;

 

Cancellation: Subject to certain exceptions, a consumer may cancel an order or return the products or services ordered within specific time periods; and

 

Refunds: Upon cancellation of the purchase and return of the products or services by the consumer, the distance selling trader must return the purchase price within three business days from the date it has received the returned products or services. If the products or services are returned without cause, the consumer must bear the delivery expenses. If the cause of the return of products is attributable to the distance selling trader, then the distance selling trader must bear the delivery expenses.

 

73

 

 

The E-Commerce Consumer Protection Act also regulates businesses which are considered to be “distance selling intermediaries.” These businesses facilitate the distance selling by third parties by making available for use to such third parties a website or other means of distance selling. As an online marketplace provider for distance selling by third parties, regulations relating to “distance selling intermediaries” in the E-Commerce Consumer Protection Act are applicable to our business in South Korea. For example, under the E-Commerce Consumer Protection Act, unless a distance selling intermediary expressly disclaims liability by notice or agreement regarding sales of products, the distance selling intermediary bears joint and several liability with such distance selling trader for damages caused to such trader’s consumers if such damages are caused by willful misconduct or negligence.

 

Investigation of Breach

 

The KFTC, the head of city government or the provincial government may, on its own authority or upon petition, conduct necessary investigations relating to violations of the E-Commerce Consumer Protection Act and, in case of any violation, order the violating entity or person to cease and desist, order compliance or take other corrective measures. If the violating entity or person repeats the violation or does not comply with the ordered corrective measure, the KFTC may suspend all or part of the business of the violating entity or person for up to one year or impose a penalty surcharge up to an amount not exceeding the sales amount related to the violation. Not responding to the correction order may also result in imprisonment of up to three years or a fine of up to KRW100 million.

 

Prohibited Actions

 

The E-Commerce Consumer Protection Act prohibits distance selling traders and distance selling intermediaries from engaging in certain actions, including among others, misrepresentation, fraud, supplying products without an order and demanding payment, and using consumer information without permission or beyond the scope permitted. A failure to comply with such requirements could result in a fine of up to KRW10 million and a correction order from the KFTC.

 

Telecommunications Business Act

 

The Telecommunications Business Act classifies telecommunications service providers into three categories: a network service provider, a specific service provider and a value-added service provider.

 

An operator of an online marketplace, such as Reebonz Korea Co., Ltd., is classified as a value-added service provider under the Telecommunications Business Act. Value-added service providers are subject to certain reporting requirements and must notify users, among others, of any suspension or closure of all or part of their business and report such events to the relevant authority at least 30 days in advance.

 

Act on Promotion of Information and Communications Network Utilization and Information Protection, etc.

 

The Act on Promotion of Information and Communications Network Utilization and Information Protection, etc., or the Information Communication Network Act, requires online service providers to protect consumer information maintained by such service providers. When gathering personal information, online service providers must notify the user of (i) the purpose of gathering and using the personal information, (ii) the items of personal information that it intends to gather among others, and (iii) the period of time during which it intends to retain and use the personal information, and obtain consent from the user. Furthermore, in case such information is provided to a third party, online service providers must obtain consent from the user after providing certain notifications. Also, the online service provider may only gather the minimum necessary information directly related to the service it provides. Any use or disclosure of information to a third party beyond the scope notified to the user or agreed in a contract with the user is allowed only when the user consents to such use or disclosure or when such use or disclosure is permitted under any other laws or regulations of South Korea. Certain exceptions to the consent requirement apply. Using or receiving personal information beyond the scope notified to the user or as set forth in the contract or providing personal information to a third party may be punishable by imprisonment of up to five years or a penalty of up to KRW50 million.

 

74

 

 

After the online service provider has achieved its purpose of collecting or receiving personal information or after the period during which the third party was allowed to hold and use such information has expired, subject to the Information Communication Network Act’s requirement for retention of certain information on contracts, sales, consumer complaints, among others, the online service provider must immediately destroy the personal information, provided, that the same must not apply where it is required to preserve the personal information in accordance with any other laws. A user may claim damages against an online service provider for the harm suffered as a result of the online service provider’s breach of the requirement to protect personal information under the Information Communication Network Act. In such cases, the online service provider may not be discharged from liability, unless it proves that such harm was not due to its willful or negligent act.

 

Laws Relating to Intellectual Property or Prohibited Items

 

Certain laws relating to intellectual property rights, such as the Copyright Act or the Trademark Act, regulate items being sold in online marketplaces that infringe on third-party intellectual rights. For example, under the Copyright Act, importers or distributors of authentic luxury goods are prohibited from using others’ images or descriptions of such products. However, if the images or descriptions are created by them and do not constitute a reproduction or transmission of others’ images or descriptions, such use of images or descriptions of the products may be allowed.

 

Under the Trademark Act, parallel importation is not prohibited and does not itself constitute a trademark infringement if (i) the imported product is a “genuine product” bearing the trademark which was attached by a foreign trademark owner or licensee of such trademark, (ii) such foreign trademark owner or licensee and a domestic trademark owner or licensee (if any) are the same person or entity, or have a close legal or economic relationship (for example, the domestic trademark owner or licensee is an exclusive dealer or distributor or an affiliate of the foreign trademark owner or licensee), and (iii) there is no substantial difference between the product imported by a parallel importer and the products distributed in Korea by a domestic dealer or distributor having the domestic trademark right or license, in terms of product quality (such as the product’s functionality or durability) but not in terms of ancillary services (such as customer service support for the product or replacement of the product). Any person who knowingly infringes a trademark right or an exclusive license to trademark could be subject to imprisonment of up to seven years or a fine of up to KRW100 million. An entity whose representative, agent or employee infringed the trademark right or exclusive license to trademark could also be subject to a fine of up to KRW300 million.

 

In case the trademark on a product imported by a parallel importer is used as a business mark of the parallel importer and, as a result, misleads others to believe that the parallel importer is an official domestic agent or licensee of the foreign trademark owner or licensee, such use of trademark may constitute an act of unfair competition that is prohibited under the Unfair Competition Prevention and

 

Trade Secret Protection Act. However, if the parallel importer exercises due care to avoid such confusion by, for example, clarifying on its website that it is not an owner or licensee of the trademark of luxury goods imported and distributed by it or an agent or dealer of the foreign owner or licensee of such trademarks, and that it has no relationship whatsoever with such foreign trademark owner or licensee, the parallel importer’s such use of trademark is not likely to constitute a prohibited unfair competition. An individual who violates the Unfair Competition Prevention and Trade Secret Protection Act by knowingly engaging in an act of unfair competition could be punished by imprisonment of up to three years or a criminal fine of up to KRW30 million, and an entity whose representative, agent or employee commits an act of unfair competition could also be subject to a criminal fine of up to KRW30 million.

 

75

 

 

Taiwan

 

Consumer Protection Act

 

A business operator who engages in the business of designing, producing, manufacturing, importing or distributing goods, or providing services to consumers, is subject to the Consumer Protection Act of Taiwan, or the CPA. With respect to a business operator of an online retail business, the following rules under the CPA apply:

 

Seven-day Return Period for Online Sales

 

A consumer who purchases goods online, through telephone, by mail order or in any other similar manner which does not allow a consumer to examine the goods physically (“mail order sale” or “distance sale”) is entitled to return the goods within seven days from the receipt without stating any reasons or paying any expenses or the purchase price under the CPA. Any agreement limiting the seven day return period will be deemed null and void under the CPA.

 

Regulations on Standardized Contracts

 

Under the CPA, if a business operator enters into a standardized contract with consumers, the interpretation of the terms and conditions therein should be based on the principles of equality and reciprocity, and if ambiguity exists, interpretations shall be made favorable to consumers. In addition, the CPA authorizes competent authorities to promulgate mandatory and prohibitory provisions of a standardized contract to be used in certain industries. Any terms and conditions contained in the standardized contract used by a business operator violating the mandatory and prohibitory provisions shall be null and void, and such provisions would automatically constitute part of the agreement between the business operator and the consumer. For online retail businesses, the “Mandatory and Prohibitory Provisions Governing Standardized Contracts for the Online Retail Industry” will apply. For online marketplace businesses, if the marketplace operator withholds payment pending the expiration of the return period and remitting the same to the seller, the “Mandatory and Prohibitory Provisions Governing Standardized Contracts for Third-Party Payment Service” will apply. According to the CPA, a business operator who violates the mandatory and prohibitory provisions of the standardized contract will be subject to, unless otherwise provided by law, an administrative fine of NT$30,000 to NT$300,000 if it fails to rectify the violation within the period specified by the competent authority. The fine can be further increased to NT$50,000 to NT$500,000 if it fails to rectify the violation pursuant to the subsequent order, and such fines may be imposed until the violation is remedied.

 

Notification Requirement for Online Sales

 

The CPA currently requires a business operator to inform consumers of the following information in writing when making a distance sale: the terms and conditions of the sale, the names of the business operator and its responsible person, and the office address or residential address. An amendment to the CPA, which is not yet effective, will require additional information to be disclosed, including, among others, the deadline for the consumer to rescind the transaction and/or return the goods purchased (the seven day return period), the method of handling consumer complaints and other matters required by competent authorities.

 

False Advertisements

 

Under the CPA, a business operator must ensure the accuracy of the content of advertisements, and a business operator’s obligations to consumers shall not be less than what is stated in its advertisements. In addition, a media business operator engaging in publishing or reporting advertisements who knows or should have known that the contents of the advertisements are untrue will also be jointly and severally liable to consumers who rely on such advertisements.

 

Dispute Resolution Mechanism for Consumer Complaint

 

According to the CPA, when a dispute arises, a consumer may file a complaint with the business operator, a consumer protection group or a consumer service center (which is a part of the local government), and if a complaint is not properly handled by the business operator within 15 days, the consumer may further file a complaint with a consumer protection officer. If the dispute is still unresolved, the consumer may further apply for mediation by the Consumer Dispute Mediation Commission. If meditation is unsuccessful, a consumer may seek relief from the appropriate court where the consumer/business operator relationship was established.

 

76

 

 

MANAGEMENT’S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION AND
RESULTS OF OPERATIONS

 

You should read the following discussion together with our consolidated financial statements and the related notes included elsewhere in this prospectus. Our unaudited interim financial statements disclosed in this registration statement has not been subject to any form of assurance, either audit or review, by the Company’s independent registered public accounting firm and as such should be considered with this in mind. This discussion contains forward looking statements about our business and operations. Our actual results may differ materially from those we currently anticipate as a result of many factors, including those we describe under “Risk Factors” and elsewhere in this prospectus. See “Special Note Regarding Forward Looking Statements.”

 

In this section, references to “we,” “us,” “Reebonz” and “our” are intended to refer to Reebonz and our subsidiaries, unless the context clearly indicates otherwise.

 

Overview

 

We believe we are a leading player in the online luxury market in our markets of Southeast Asia and Core Asia Pacific Market, based on GMV. Our Core Asia Pacific Market consists of Singapore, Malaysia, Indonesia, Thailand, the Philippines, Vietnam, Hong Kong, South Korea, Taiwan, Australia and New Zealand, collectively. “Southeast Asia” is comprised of only Singapore, Malaysia, Indonesia, Thailand, Philippines and Vietnam. We make luxury accessible to consumers through our internet platform, which includes localized versions of our website, www.reebonz.com, and our Reebonz mobile application, complemented by our offline channels. Through our core B2C Merchandise Business, we curate and sell authentic new and pre-owned luxury goods, including handbags, small leather goods and other accessories, shoes, watches and jewelry, from the world’s leading luxury brands. We also provide a marketplace for individuals to sell new and pre-owned luxury goods. We believe our buyer and seller promises, transaction fulfillment services, returns and refunds policies and product authentication capabilities have helped us build a trusted reputation that encourages buyers and sellers to use our platform. With the introduction of our White Glove Service, a consignment marketplace in 2012, Reebonz Closets, a C2C marketplace, in February 2015, and the launch of our B2C Merchant’s Marketplace in Singapore in May 2015, we expect to grow our Marketplace Businesses to complement our B2C Merchandise Business by enabling our buyers to become sellers, and sellers to become buyers, thereby transforming our business into an ecosystem for luxury goods that increases engagement and enhances the lifetime value of our customers. In addition, our Sell Back and Sell to Reebonz features provides Reebonz Credits to sellers, which we believe will drive increased purchases on the platform. We provide buyers and sellers an omni-channel experience to buy and sell luxury goods through our integrated websites, mobile application and offline channels. Our business has grown substantially since its launch in May 2009. In 2018, we achieved a GMV of US$234.5 million and revenue of US$88.4 million. In six months ending June 30, 2019, we achieved a GMV of US97.6 million and revenue of US$31.1 million.

 

Our business model is summarized below:

 

  B2C Merchandise Business.    Currently, our core business is our B2C Merchandise Business, which consists primarily of our B2C “e tailing” business, through which we sell authentic new and pre-owned luxury goods to buyers through our platform. We source new items primarily from authorized distributors and luxury wholesalers and pre-owned items from individuals, pre-owned luxury dealers and auction houses. Unlike for our marketplaces, we purchase these new and pre-owned items as inventory for sale to our buyers. Our sales are largely made through limited time curated sales events and open catalogue listings on our online platform as well as offline channels. In 2018, our B2C Merchandise Business accounted for 53.0% of our GMV and 94.4% of our revenue. In the six months ended June 30, 2019,  our B2C Merchandise Business accounted for 37.3% of our GMV and 91.5% of our revenue.

 

  Marketplace Business.    Our Marketplace Business consists of our C2C Individual Seller’s Marketplace and our B2C Merchant’s Marketplace. Our C2C Individual Seller’s Marketplace allows individual sellers to sell luxury goods to buyers through Reebonz Closets or our White Glove Service. Our Reebonz Closets, launched in February 2015, is a C2C marketplace, where individual members use our mobile application to sell pre-owned luxury goods directly to other members in the same country, with the added benefit of authentication by our ateliers before delivery to the buyer. Reebonz Closets currently operates in Singapore, Hong Kong, Malaysia, Taiwan and Thailand, and we intend to launch Reebonz Closets in other markets in the future. Our White Glove Service, which was launched in 2012, caters to premium individual sellers. Through our White Glove Service, we take luxury goods on consignment from individuals, offer them for sale on our platform and, in addition to authentication, provide certain services such as valuation, grading, photographing, writing product descriptions, and interfacing with buyers. In May 2015, we launched our B2C Merchant’s Marketplace in Singapore. Our B2C Merchant’s Marketplace is a B2C marketplace that aggregates multi brand boutiques, shops that sell pre-owned luxury goods, and vintage luxury dealers, curated by us from around the world and allows them to sell new and pre-owned luxury goods on our platform. In 2018, our Marketplace Business accounted for 47.0% of our GMV and 5.1% of our revenue. In the six months ending June 30, 2019, our Marketplace Business accounted for 62.7% of our GMV and 8.5% of our revenue.

 

We generate our revenue from our B2C Merchandise Business and Marketplace Business. Our Reebonz Closets and B2C Merchant’s Marketplace were introduced in February 2015 and May 2015, respectively, and therefore our marketplace revenue for periods prior to 2015 does not include any revenue from these marketplaces. Prior to 2015, our marketplace revenue was mainly derived from our White Glove Service.

 

77

 

 

Key Factors Affecting Our Results of Operations

 

Our Ability to Attract and Retain Buyers and Sellers at a Reasonable Cost

 

Attracting and retaining buyers has been our key focus since our inception, particularly for our B2C Merchandise Business, and with our expansion of our Marketplace Business, we expect that attracting and retaining sellers will also be an important factor in maintaining and expanding our growth. For six months ending June 30, 2018 and June 30, 2019, respectively, 83.0% and 84.1%, respectively of our revenue was from sales made through online channels, including our websites and mobile application, and 17.0% and 15.9%, respectively of our sales were made through offline channels. We measure our effectiveness in attracting and retaining buyers for our online channels through several key performance indicators, including our total buyers, new buyers, repeat buyers, total orders, orders placed by repeat buyers, average order value, or AOV, and average GMV per user. The following table sets forth these indicators for our online channels for the periods presented:

 

   For the year ended
December 31
   For the Six Months ended
June 30,
 
   2016   2017   2018   2018   2019 
Accumulated buyers   349,880    441,612    523,057    479,532    558,106 
New buyers   92,640    91,732    81,445    37,920    35,049 
Repeat buyers   63,054    54,329    49,932    28,166    25,490 
Total buyers   136,828    131,677    119,659    62,224    55,953 
Total orders   248,800    215,510    198,489    91,184    81,969 
Percentage of total orders placed by repeat buyers   70.3%   64.1%   64.9%   62.6%   62.8%
GMV (USD$, in millions)   247.0    250.1    234.5    126.9    97.6 
AOV (USD$)   568    672    675    738    574 
Average GMV per user (USD$)   1,033    1,099    1,119    1,082    859 
Selected Non-IFRS Financial Data                         
Adjusted EBITDA   (10,264)   (7,668)   (8,345)   (3,511)   (3,924)
Adjusted EBITDA margin   -8.0%   -7.1%   -9.4%   -7.9%   -12.6%

 

(1) The number of “accumulated buyers” means, as of the end of the period specified, the number of total buyers on a cumulative basis since our inception.

 

(2) A “new buyer” means any unique buyer, as identified by his or her unique customer identification number in our system, who made his or her first online purchase in the specified period (we currently do not track offline orders from buyers using their unique customer identification number), regardless of the buyer returning or cancelling the order.

 

(3) A “repeat buyer” means any buyer, as identified by his or her unique customer identification number in our system, who made an online purchase in the specified period and had previously made one or more online purchase through our platform from our inception to the end of the specified period (we currently do not track offline orders from buyers using their unique customer identification number), regardless of the buyer returning or cancelling the order. A new buyer that makes his or her first purchase and then a repeat purchase during the same period would be considered a “repeat buyer” for such period and would also be considered a “new buyer” for such period.

 

(4) “Total buyers” for a specified period means, collectively, the unique buyers, as identified by his or her unique customer identification number in our system, who have made online purchases through our platform during the specified period (we currently do not track offline orders from buyers using their unique customer identification number), regardless of the buyer returning or cancelling the order.

 

(5) “Total orders” for a specified period means total online orders (we currently do not track the number of offline orders), regardless of the order being returned or cancelled.

 

(7) “Average order value” or “AOV” represents online transacted GMV for the period divided by the number of online orders from buyers during the period (we currently do not track the number of offline orders), regardless of the order being returned or canceled or discounts and credits being applied.

 

(8) “Average GMV per user” represents online transacted GMV for the period divided by the number of total buyers who purchased online during the period (we currently do not track offline orders from buyers using their unique customer identification number), regardless of the order being returned or canceled or discounts and credits being applied.

 

78

 

 

The decrease in our total buyers and repeat buyers have been primarily attributable to the limited investment in marketing, offset by the growth in the number of our registered members from 5,536,652 in 2017 to 5,875,887 in 2018 to 6,055,578 in 1H 2019, and to the mix shift in geographic expansion of our business, including increase in sales of pre-owned goods, changes in consumer spending patterns in the markets where we operate, more consumers being able to afford luxury goods, and the regional growth in e commerce and mobile commerce, as well as increased recognition of our Reebonz brand and platform.

 

The decrease in our total orders has primarily resulted from the limited investment in marketing, which impacted both repeat buyers and new buyers. In 2017,2018, and 1H 2019, 64.1%, 64.9%, and 62.8%, respectively, of our total orders were placed by repeat buyers. The total number of repeat buyers were 54,329 and 49,932, in 2017 and 2018 and 25,490 in 1H 2019, respectively, representing 41.3%,41.7%, and 45.6% respectively, of the total buyers during the same periods. Our total buyers were 131,677 and 119,659 in 2017 and 2018, respectively and 55,953 in 1H 2019. Our buyers may include those that have made purchases through both our online B2C Merchandise Business and our Marketplace Business during the same period.

 

The overall growth in AOV and average GMV per user have been driven by, among other things, a growth in higher value luxury goods available through our platform, which occurred due to changes in the mix of brands and products that we carry and our increased sales of pre-owned luxury goods.

 

We expect that, as our Marketplace Business grows, the number of individual sellers and merchants selling through our platform and as a result the number and value of products sold through our platform, will continue to increase and be a factor in our operating results.

 

Our customer acquisition strategy has been a key factor affecting our growth. Historically, we have maintained stability in our marketing costs as a percentage of revenue, and we expect that our ability to control such costs and improve market efficiency as our business grows, particularly as we expand our Marketplace Business, will continue to be a key factor which affects our results.

 

Geographic Expansion

 

Our entry into new countries significantly affects our number of buyers and results of operations. Our business started in 2009 when we commenced operations in Singapore, followed by Hong Kong and Australia. Since 2009, our business has expanded to new countries, and we currently have a presence in nine Asia Pacific countries, including Singapore, Hong Kong, Taiwan, South Korea, Malaysia, Australia, Indonesia, Thailand, and China and ship to additional regions such as Middle East and North America. We have grown primarily organically by establishing local subsidiaries. In certain situations, we have made acquisitions or entered into joint ventures, such as in 2013 when we acquired Club Venit in Korea; however, we do not consider the contribution of such acquisitions to our overall growth to be significant. Our expansion into new markets and our ability to deepen our market presence have been a key driver of our revenue growth. Expansion and our efforts to further penetrate markets have negatively impacted our gross profit margin periodically, as we have offered discounts and other promotions when entering new markets, such as Korea and Indonesia.

 

Business Lines and Supply of Products

 

Since our inception, our core business has been the sale of new luxury goods through our B2C Merchandise Business. Toward the end of 2012, we started buying and selling pre-owned luxury goods and commenced the sale of pre-owned luxury goods through our White Glove Service. In February 2015, we introduced Reebonz Closets and in May 2015 our B2C Merchant’s Marketplace, which we expect will continue to support our growth. Products sold through our Marketplace Business are sold directly from sellers to buyers, and, accordingly, we do not purchase inventory related to this business. Therefore, we do not record any cost of revenue for our Marketplace Business, and our gross profit reflects 100% of our revenue from our Marketplace Business. For our B2C Merchandise Business, we record cost of revenues, which primarily consists of the cost of purchasing luxury goods that we sell through our B2C Merchandise Business, as well the cost of shipping such goods to our logistics centers. Accordingly, our gross profit for our B2C Merchandise Business represents the difference between our B2C Merchandise Revenue and our cost of revenues. As a result, going forward, as we expect our Marketplace Business grows as a percentage of our revenue, we expect that our gross margin for our overall business would be higher due to the inclusion of the full amount of Marketplace Revenue in our gross profit. In addition, we expect that our expansion of our Marketplace Business will increase the number of individual sellers and merchant boutiques as well as SKUs on our platform and allow us to scale our business.

 

79

 

 

Demand for Luxury Goods and Growth of E Commerce and Mobile Commerce

 

The overall demand for luxury goods sold through our platform is affected by the demand for luxury goods in the markets where we sell our products. We believe that brand awareness and the growth in consumer demand for luxury goods have been key factors affecting our results. In addition, our business is affected by the growth of e-commerce and mobile commerce in those markets. According to Bain, e-commerce and smartphone penetration is expected to increase across Asia.

 

In particular, we believe consumers of luxury goods are increasingly shopping online and especially through mobile devices. 62.1% of our online revenue was generated from our mobile application in 2018, as compared to 55.1% in 2017 respectively. 68.6% of our online revenue was generated from our mobile application in six months ended June 30, 2019. In line with our mobile strategy, in February 2015, we introduced Reebonz Closets, an interactive marketplace that encourages social discovery of pre-owned luxury goods which is available to buyers and sellers through their mobile devices. We also host special promotions and sales events that are available exclusively on our mobile application, as well as use “push” notifications to promote targeted sales events based on analyses of our mobile customers’ purchasing and browsing behaviors. We use messaging channels such as WhatsApp, Wechat, and Line, amongst others to engage with our customer base and send them notifications on special events and promotions. As a result, sales through our mobile application have grown significantly since its launch in June 2010, and we expect that our ability to continue to grow sales through our mobile application will continue to impact our results going forward.

 

Brand, Product, Channel and Geographical Mix

 

Our revenues, cost of revenues and margins are significantly affected by the pricing of our products and our cost of merchandise. Our pricing varies by brand, product type, channel and geography. Our cost of merchandise, which is the largest component of our cost of revenue, varies by brand and product type. Accordingly, the mix of brands and product types we sell and the mix of channels being used and the mix of countries where we sell our products, all impact our revenues and margins.

 

From time to time we have shifted our brand and product mix in order to increase our AOV, and this has affected our revenues and gross margins. For example, we continuously optimize our product mix to sell more of higher value goods and brands and reduced our emphasis on certain lower value items, such as small leather goods and shoes. This allows us to improve certain operating cost efficiencies by achieving revenue growth through the sale of fewer higher value items at higher prices. We centrally coordinate pricing decisions across our markets in order to pursue improved margins. We set prices dramatically to be more in line with local considerations, such as local pricing by brand owners, competition and demand. We typically seek to align our pricing of particular products based on the countries where we can derive the highest margins, and then may choose to reduce prices to the extent necessary to increase demand. We have increased contribution of Marketplace Business which has resulted in increase in gross profit margin. In 2017 and 2018, our Marketplace Business contributed 39.5% and 47.0% of GMV respectively, and 62.7% in 1H 2019. We expect that as we increase individual sellers, merchant boutiques and SKUs in the Marketplace Business, the contribution will continue to grow.

 

In addition, our mix of in-season and out of season products, and pre-owned and new products also affects our margins, with new in season products typically carrying higher prices but lower margins as compared to new out of season products and pre-owned products. Because we use offline channels as a marketing tool, and sometimes to clear out of season stock, the products we sell in our offline channels can have lower prices, and therefore our revenues and margins may be impacted by our online and offline channel mix. Offline sales contributed 21.2%, 16.2%, and 15.9% of our revenue in 2017, 2018, and six months ended June 30, 2019 respectively.

 

80

 

 

From a geographic perspective, our dynamic pricing strategy varies by country due to, among other things, varying consumer preferences across countries, country specific discounts and credits driven by our marketing strategies, local competition and differing regulatory, taxation and foreign exchanges regimes.

 

We may continue to alter our brand and product mix, channel mix and geographical mix of our sales from time to time, and can do so, for example, with a view to increasing revenues at the expense of margins, or increasing margins at the expense of revenues. To the extent our sales by brand, product type, channel or geography fluctuate, our revenues and margins could be significantly affected.

 

Our Investment in User Experience, Technology and Infrastructure

 

We have made, and will continue to make, significant investments in our platform and ecosystem to attract buyers and sellers and enhance user experience, including providing a personalized experience, dynamic and localized pricing of products, predictive analytics to determine the Sell Back value, integrating with 62 financial institutions in all the countries we operate in, speeding up delivery time and through improving the features of our platform. We have an omni-channel and omni-stock strategy where we will continue to integrate with merchant boutiques around the world as well as products in our offline channels. We expect that our investments will continue to include developing our data analytics in order to optimize user experience, targeting our marketing activities, optimizing our cross-border operations and maintaining and improving our mobile application.

 

We expect to continue to extend our operational capabilities to support our long term growth. We completed construction of our new, 215,000 square foot headquarters in Singapore in 2017, specifically designed to house luxury goods to allow us to increase warehouse space as we grow our business and optimize our localized and cross border supply chain process. Our new headquarters allow us to better manage costs through owning our own land rather than renting, thereby reducing rental expenses. However, our depreciation expenses increased through our property ownership.

 

Our Ability to Increase our Scale

 

Our margins are significantly affected by the scale of our business. We expect that as the size of our business grows, we will be able to negotiate more favorable pricing with our suppliers of luxury goods, logistics providers, marketing service providers, technology providers, and merchant boutiques. In addition, we believe that as our business grows we will be able to increase our cost efficiency due to economies of scale. Our logistics center at our new headquarters allow us to increase our scale at a lower cost.

 

Key Components of Results of Operations

 

Revenue

 

We generate our revenue from our B2C Merchandise Business and Marketplace Business. Merchandise revenue represents revenue from our B2C Merchandise Business and are generated when we act as principal for the direct sale of luxury goods from our inventory to buyers through our platform. Merchandise revenue is recorded net of discounts, credits, refunds and taxes. Marketplace revenues represent the commissions that we earn for sales made by third parties using our platform.

 

The following table sets forth our revenue by business line, broken down by amounts and percentages of revenue for the years/periods presented

 

   2017   2018   6 months ending
June 30,
2018
   6 months ending
June 30,
2019
 
   US$   %   US$   %   US$   %   US$   % 
Revenue:                                
B2C Merchandise Business revenue   104,347    96.9    83,412    94.4    41,970    94.6    28,227    90.7 
Marketplace Business revenue   3,056    2.8    4,498    5.1    2,154    4.9    2,660    8.5 
Rental revenue   336    0.3    469    0.5    222    0.5    236    0.8 
Total revenue   107,739    100.0    88,379    100.0    44,346    100.0    31,123    100.0 

 

81

 

 

We closely monitor our total number of orders and average order value as an indicator of revenue trends. Our total numbers of orders were 215,510 in 2017 and 198,489 in 2018, among which 64.1% and 64.9%, respectively, were orders placed by repeat buyers. Average order value increased from US$672 in 2017 to US$675 in 2018. Our total numbers of orders were 91,184 and 81,969 for the six months ending June 30, 2018 and June 30, 2019, respectively, among which 62.6% and 62.8%, respectively, were orders placed by repeat buyers. Average order value decreased from US$738 to US$574 in the six months ending June 30, 2018 and 2019, respectively.

 

GMV for a specified period represents gross merchandise value and is an operating metric, which is the total value of online orders placed and offline merchandise sold through our Merchandise Business or our Marketplace Business that are generally initiated through our platform.

 

The following table sets forth our GMV by business line, broken down by amounts and percentages of GMV for the years/periods presented.

 

           6 months ending
June 30,
 
   2017   2018   2018   2019 
   US$   %   US$   %   US$   %   US$   % 
GMV:                                
B2C Merchandise Business GMV   151,231    60.5    124,402    53.0    61,653    48.6    36,455    37.3 
Marketplace Business GMV   98,820    39.5    110,135    47.0    65,220    51.4   $61,150    62.7
Total GMV   250,051    100.0    234,537    100.0    126,873    100.0   $97,605    100.0 

 

Cost of revenue

 

Our cost of revenue primarily consists of the cost of purchasing luxury goods that we sell through our B2C Merchandise Business, the cost of shipping such goods to our logistics centers, and allowance for inventories. As the revenue generated from our Marketplace Business represents commissions from sales of luxury goods by our sellers, none of our cost of revenue is attributable to our Marketplace Business.

 

Fulfillment Expenses

 

Fulfillment expenses consist primarily of expenses incurred in connection with the fulfillment of orders to customers, shipments, operations and staffing of our logistics, retail and customer service centers. Such expenses include inspecting and warehousing inventories; authenticating goods sold through Reebonz Closets and our White Glove Service; picking, packaging and preparing customer orders for shipment; collecting payments from buyers, including payment gateway fees; operating our retail lounges; warehouse rental expenses; and customer service. Fulfillment expenses are generally variable except for staff costs and rental expenses. Fulfillment expenses also include amounts payable to third parties that assist us in fulfillment and customer service operations, including for orders placed through Marketplace Business.

 

Marketing Expenses

 

Marketing expenses consist primarily of advertising expenses, brand promotional activities, data analytics and payroll and related expenses for personnel engaged in marketing. Advertising expenses are expensed when the relevant services are received. We expect that our marketing expenses will decrease as a percentage of revenue as we seek to grow our Marketplace Business.

 

Technology and Content Expenses

 

Technology and content development expenses consist primarily of payroll and related costs for employees involved in application development, technology required for new business lines, editorial content production on our websites and mobile application and system support expenses, as well as server charges, costs associated with telecommunications, fees paid to third parties for IT services and amortization expenses related to intangible assets.

 

82

 

 

General and Administrative Expenses

 

General and administrative expenses consist primarily of payroll and related costs for employees involved in general corporate functions, including accounting, finance, tax, legal, merchandising, business development and human resources; professional fees and other general corporate costs, as well as costs associated with the use of facilities and equipment for these general corporate functions, such as depreciation and rental expenses. As our business grows, we expect our general and administrative expenses to continue to increase in absolute terms. In addition, following consummation of the proposed business combination, we will incur compliance, auditing, legal and other costs, as a consequence of becoming a publicly traded company.

 

Government Grant

 

Government grant primarily includes grants provided by the government of Singapore to support the development of businesses.

 

Other Income

 

Other income primarily consists of maintenance income, forfeiture of customer deposit and other miscellaneous income.

 

Other Expenses

 

Other expenses primarily consist of net foreign exchange losses, which are mainly related to changes in the value of the Singapore dollar against other currencies used in countries where we sell luxury goods or earn commissions on the sale of luxury goods and other miscellaneous expenses.

 

Finance Costs and Income

 

Finance costs and income primarily consist of interest expenses on bank borrowings and interest income on bank deposits, respectively.

 

Change in Fair Value of Convertible Preference Shares

 

Change in fair value of convertible preference shares represents changes in the fair value of our Series A, Series B, Series C and Series D convertible preference shares, each of which are accounted for under IFRS as derivative financial liabilities and carried at fair value on our statements of financial position. Changes in the fair value of these instruments are recognised in our statements of profit or loss in the period in which the changes occur. The Series A Preference Shares were issued in February 2010, the Series B Preference Shares were issued in December 2010, the Series C Preference Shares were issued in two tranches, in December 2011 and January 2012, and the Series D Preference Shares were issued in April 2013.

 

Since the Business Combination, all convertible preference shares have been converted to ordinary shares. Hence, there will be no determination of fair value of convertible preference shares in future periods.

 

Taxation

 

We and our subsidiaries incorporated in Singapore are subject to the uniform tax rate of 17% under Singapore income tax law on taxable income. Under Singapore tax laws, we are exempted from Singapore income tax on our foreign sourced dividend income received in Singapore by our company and Singapore tax resident subsidiaries provided that (i) such income is subject to income tax of a similar character under the laws of the jurisdiction from which such income is received at the time the income is received in Singapore; (ii) the highest rate of such tax on any gains or profits from a trade or business carried on in such jurisdiction is not less than 15%; and (iii) the Singapore Comptroller of Income Tax is satisfied that the tax exemption would be beneficial to the person resident in Singapore. We recorded income tax expenses of US$0.1 million and US$0.1 million, in 2017 and 2018, respectively, reflecting corporate taxes paid by certain of our subsidiaries located outside of Singapore.

 

We have not recognised deferred tax assets with respect to our carried forward tax losses as we are not able to estimate the timing of the availability of future taxable profits to utilize these tax losses, based on our operating history. In addition, before utilizing these tax losses carried forward, we would need to obtain the approval of the Inland Revenue Authority of Singapore.

 

83

 

 

Results of Operations

 

The following table summarizes our consolidated results of operations in absolute amounts. Period to period comparisons of historical results of operations should not be relied upon as indicative of future performance.

 

   For the year Ended
December 31
   For the Six Months Ended
June 30
 
   2016   2017   2018   2018   2019 
   USD   USD   USD   USD   USD 
Revenue   128,003    107,739    88,379    44,346    31,123 
Cost of revenue   (95,230)   (77,628)   (66,222)   (32,845)   (23,369)
Gross profit   32,773    30,111    22,157    11,501    7,754 
Fulfillment expenses   (18,882)   (18,175)   (14,917)   (7,666)   (5,303)
Marketing expenses   (9,739)   (7,573)   (5,400)   (2,632)   (1,932)
Technology and content expenses   (5,252)   (4,811)   (3,809)   (1,925)   (1,804)
General and administrative expenses   (15,974)   (11,055)   (11,394)   (4,828)   (6,432)
Government grant   290    167    203    137    93 
Operating loss   (16,784)   (11,336)   (13,160)   (5,413)   (7,624)
Other income   550    415    676    223    622 
Other expenses   (1,157)   (923)   (731)   (328)   (349)
Finance costs   (1,797)   (3,250)   (3,533)   (1,794)   (3,392)
Finance income   35    14    7    4    4 
    (19,153)   (15,080)   (16,741)   (7,308)   (10,739)
Change in fair value of:                         
– convertible preference shares   59,233    70,063    (2,068)   (14,219)    
– Settlement by shares to service providers                   1,802 
Recapitalization expenses           (16,530)        
Profit/(Loss) before tax   40,080    54,983    (35,339)   (21,527)   (8,937)
Income tax expense   (10)   (75)   (116)   (65)   30 
Profit/(Loss) for the year   40,070    54,908    (35,455)   (21,592)   (8,907)
                          
Selected Non-IFRS Financial Data                         
Adjusted EBITDA   (10,264)   (7,668)   (8,345)   (3,511)   (3,924)
                          
Adjusted EBITDA margin   -8.0%   -7.1%   -9.4%   -7.9%   -12.6%

 

Six Months Ended June 30, 2019 and 2018

 

Revenue. Our revenue decreased by 29.8% from US$44.3 million for the six months ended June 30, 2018 to US$31.1 million for the six months ended June 30, 2019. These decrease were driven by a decrease in online orders, which decreased from 91,184 for the six months ended June 30, 2018 to 81,969 for the same period in 2019, primarily driven by decrease in total buyers and marketing expenses. Our total buyers decreased from 62,224 for the six months ended June 30, 2018 to 55,953 for the same period in 2019, attributable to decrease in both repeat buyers and new buyers. We believe these decreases were primarily attributable to decreased marketing activities and decrease in inventory balance. Marketing expenses decreased by 26.6% for the six months ended June 30, 2019 compared to the same period in 2018.

 

Cost of Revenue. Our cost of revenue decreased by 28.9% from US$32.8 million for the six months ended June 30, 2018 to US$23.4 million for the same period in 2019, primarily due to decreased cost of merchandise, which in turn was primarily due to decreases in both sales volume.

 

Gross Profit. Our gross profit decreased by 32.6% from US$11.5 million for the six months ended June 30, 2018 to US$7.8 million for the same period in 2019.

 

84

 

 

Fulfillment Expenses. Our fulfillment expenses decreased by 30.8% from US$7.7 million for the six months ended June 30, 2018 to US$5.3 million for the same period in 2019. This decrease was primarily due to a decrease in selling and distribution costs due to lower sales volume, rental costs, and staff costs due to decreased headcount. Our fulfillment expenses decreased as a percentage of revenue from 17.3% for the six months ended June 30, 2018 to 17.0% for the same period in 2019.

 

Marketing Expenses. Our marketing expenses decreased by 26.6% from US$2.6 million for the six months ended June 30, 2018 to US$1.9 million for the same period in 2019. This decrease was primarily due to decreased staff costs and online marketing expenses, primarily because we decreased customer acquisition, retargeting and branding activities across all channels. Our marketing expenses increase as a percentage of revenue from 5.9% for the six months ended June 30, 2018 to 6.2% for the same period in 2019.

 

Technology and Content Expenses. Our technology and content expenses decreased by 6.3% from US$1.9 million for the six months ended June 30, 2018 to US$1.8 million for the same period in 2019. This decrease was primarily due to decreased depreciation and amortization expense, headcount of our development teams and contractor fee, and decreased hosting and license fees. Our technology and content expenses increased as a percentage of revenue from 4.3% for the six months ended June 30, 2018 to 5.8% for the same period in 2019.

 

General and Administrative Expenses. Our general and administrative expenses increased by 33.2% from US$4.8 million for the six months ended June 30, 2018 to US$6.4 million for the same period in 2019. This increase was primarily due to increase in professional fees to $2.1 million incurred in the public offering and warrant exchange transactions in 1H 2019 and increase in depreciation expense due to the adoption of IFRS 16 on 1 January 2019 and partially offset by a decrease in staff to support the business which resulted in lower staff costs, decreased rental cost as we moved to our Headquarters in Singapore, and decreased traveling costs. Our general and administrative expenses increased as a percentage of revenue from 10.9% for the six months ended June 30, 2018 to 26.7% for the same period in 2019.

 

Government Grant. For the six months ended June 30, 2019 we recorded lower income from government grant of US$0.1 million as compared to US$0.13 million for the same period in 2018. Our government grant primarily consisted of grants from the Singapore Government related to capability development.

 

Operating Loss. Our operating loss widened by 40.8% from US$5.4 million for the six months ended June 30, 2018 to US$7.6 million for the same period in 2019, primarily due to decreased revenue and increased in general and administrative expenses.

 

Other Income. Other income increased from US$0.2 million for the six months ended June 30, 2018 to US$0.6 million for the same period in 2019.

 

Other Expenses. Other expenses remained constant at US$0.3 million for the six months ended June 30, 2018 and 2019, primarily due to optimizing for fluctuations in the exchange rate of the Singapore dollar compared to other currencies in which we conduct business.

 

Finance Costs. Our finance costs increased from US$1.8 million for the six months ended June 30, 2018 to US$3.4 million for the same period in 2019. This increase was primarily due to increased interest expenses due to backstop agreement.

 

Finance Income. Our finance income remained constant at US$0.004 million for the six months ended June 30, 2018 and 2019.

 

Change in Fair Value of Payment to Service Provider. We recorded a fair value loss of payment to service provider of US$1.8 million for the six months ended June 30, 2019 and NIL for the six months ended June 30, 2018 due to transaction expenses in shares to service providers.

 

Change in Fair Value of Convertible Preference Shares. We recorded a fair value loss on convertible preference shares of US$14.2 million for the six months ended June 30, 2018 and NIL for the six months ended June 30, 2019 as we ceased to have convertible preference shares upon the completion of the Business Combination transaction with DOTA.

 

Loss for the Period. As a result of the foregoing, our loss for the six months ended June 30, 2018 was US$21.6 million and for the same period in 2019 was US$8.9 million.

 

Adjusted EBITDA. Our Adjusted EBITDA worsened from negative US$3.5 million for the six months ended June 30, 2018 to negative US$3.9 million for the same period in 2019. Our negative Adjusted EBITDA worsened to –12.6% as a percentage of revenue for the six months ended June 30, 2019 from -7.9% for the same period ended June 30, 2018. See “Selected Consolidated Financial Data and Selected Operating Data – Non IFRS Financial Measures” section for a reconciliation of Adjusted EBITDA to loss for the year.

 

85

 

 

Years Ended December 31, 2018 and 2017

 

Revenue. Our revenue decreased by 18.0% from US$107.7 million in 2017 to US$88.4 million in 2018 primarily due to a decrease in our B2C Merchandise revenue by 20% from 2017 to 2018 and offset by a 47% increase in revenue from our Marketplace Business. These decreases were driven by a decrease in online orders, which decreased from 215,510 in 2017 to 198,489 in 2018, primarily driven by decrease in total buyers. Our total buyers decreased from 131,677 in 2017 to 119,659 in 2018, attributable to decrease in both repeat buyers and new buyers. We believe these decreases were primarily attributable to decreased marketing activities.

 

Cost of Revenue. Our cost of revenue decreased by 14.7% from US$77.6 million in 2017 to US$66.2 million in 2018, primarily due to decreased cost of merchandise. This was in line with the decrease in revenue.

 

Gross Profit. Our gross profit decreased by 26.4% from US$30.1 million in 2017 to US$22.2 million in 2018. Our gross margin decreased from 27.9% in 2017 to 25.1% in 2018, due to, among other things, clearing overstocked items and aged stocks, which are typically sold at lower gross margins, offset by increase in Marketplace revenue contributions.

 

Fulfillment Expenses. Our fulfillment expenses decreased by 17.9% from US$18.2 million in 2017 to US$14.9 million in 2018. This decrease was primarily due to a decrease in staff costs due to decrease in headcount and decrease in selling and distribution costs. Our fulfillment expenses stayed the same as a percentage of revenue from 16.9% in 2017 to 16.9% in 2018 as we were able to control and manage cost when revenue decreased.

 

Marketing Expenses. Our marketing expenses decreased by 28.7% from US$7.6 million in 2017 to US$5.4 million in 2018. This decrease was primarily due to decreased marketing expenses and decreased headcount, primarily because we decreased investment in customer acquisition, retargeting and digital marketing activities across all channels. Our marketing expenses decreased as a percentage of revenue from 7.0% in 2017 to 6.1% in 2018.

 

Technology and Content Expenses. Our technology and content expenses decreased by 20.8% from US$4.8 million in 2017 to US$3.8 million in 2018. This decrease was primarily due to decreased headcount and decreased third party service provider fees. Our technology and content expenses decreased as a percentage of revenue at 4.5% in 2017 and 4.3% in 2018 as we continue to control and manage cost when revenue decreased.

 

General and Administrative Expenses. Our general and administrative expenses increased by 3.1% from US$11.1 million in 2017 to US$11.4 million in 2018. This increase was primarily due to an increase in professional fees and expenses related to the Business Combination with DOTA, offset by a decrease in headcount to support our business and other G&A and general expenses. Our general and administrative expenses increased as a percentage of revenue from 10.3% in 2017 to 12.9% in 2018 as the expenses are generally fixed cost.

 

Government Grant. Government grant remained constant at US$0.2 million in 2017 and 2018. Our government grant primarily consisted of grants received from the Singapore Government related to capability development.

 

Operating Loss. Our operating loss increased by 16.1% from US$11.3 million in 2017 to US$13.2 million in 2018, primarily due to decrease in gross profit and increased general and administration expenses. Our operating loss as a percentage of revenue increased from 10.5% in 2017 to 14.9% in 2018, due to, among other things, our increased general and administrative expenses as a percentage of revenue partially offset by our increased cost optimization in marketing and technology and content expenses.

 

Other Income. Other income increased from US$0.4 million in 2017 to US$0.7 million in 2018.

 

Other Expenses. Other expenses decreased by 20.8% from US$0.9 million in 2017 to US$0.7 million in 2018, primarily due to management decisions to manage the fluctuations in the exchange rate of the Singapore dollar compared to other currencies in which we conduct business.

 

Finance Costs. Our finance costs increased from US$3.3 million in 2017 to US$3.5 million in 2018. This increase was primarily due to increase in interest expenses due to higher bank borrowings.

 

Finance Income. Our finance income decreased from US$0.01 million in 2017 to US$0.007 million in 2018. This decrease was primarily due to decreased interest income on bank deposits in 2018.

 

Change in Fair Value of Convertible Preference Shares. We recorded fair value gains on convertible preference shares of US$70.1 million in 2017 and fair value losses of US$2.1 million in 2018. The fair value gain in 2017 resulted from a decrease in fair value of our Series A Preference Shares of US$7.7 million, Series B Preference Shares of US$11.8 million, Series C Preference Shares of US$25.8 million, and Series D Preference Shares of US$24.8 million. The fair value losses in 2018 resulted from increase in fair value of our Series A Preference Shares of US$1.7 million, Series B Preference Shares of US$2.1 million, Series C Preference Shares of US$3.6 million, and decrease in fair value of our Series D Preference Shares of US$5.3 million. The increase in fair value were primarily due to the increase equity value of the Company resulting from the completion of the Business Combination transaction with DOTA.

 

86

 

 

Recapitalization expenses. We recorded a recapitalization expenses of US$16.5 million in 2018 arising from the business combination with DOTA. As part of the business combination, DOTA’s net liability of US$7.2 million was assumed by us and the issuance of ordinary shares and warrants by us was recognized at fair value of US$9.4 million, with the resulting difference amounting to US$16.5 million.

 

Profit/(Loss) for the Year. As a result of the foregoing, our profit for the year 2017 was US$54.9 million and loss for the year 2018 was US$35.5 million.

 

Adjusted EBITDA. Our Adjusted EBITDA increased from negative $7.7 million in 2017 to negative US$8.3 million in 2018. Our negative Adjusted EBITDA as a percentage of revenue changed from 7.1% in 2017 to 9.4% in 2018.

 

Years Ended December 31, 2017 and 2016

 

Revenue. Our revenue decreased by 15.8% from US$128.0 million in 2016 to US$107.7 million in 2017 primarily due to a decrease in our B2C Merchandise revenue by 17% from 2016 to 2017 and offset by a 37% increase in revenue from our Marketplace Business. These decreases were driven by a decrease in online orders, which decreased from 248,800 in 2016 to 215,510 in 2017, primarily driven by decrease in total buyers. Our total buyers decreased from 136,828 in 2016 to 131,677 in 2017, attributable to decrease in both repeat buyers and new buyers. We believe these decreases were primarily attributable to decreased marketing activities.

 

Cost of Revenue. Our cost of revenue decreased by 18.5% from US$95.2 million in 2016 to US$77.6 million in 2017, primarily due to decreased cost of merchandise. This was in line with the decrease in revenue.

 

Gross Profit. Our gross profit decreased by 8.1% from US$32.8 million in 2016 to US$30.1 million in 2017. However, our gross margin increased from 25.6% in 2016 to 27.9% in 2017, due to, among other things, central coordination of pricing decisions across our markets, as well as clearing fewer overstocked items and aged stocks, which are typically sold at lower prices and accordingly carry lower gross margins, and increase in Marketplace revenue contributions.

 

Fulfillment Expenses. Our fulfillment expenses decreased by 3.7% from US$18.9 million in 2016 to US$18.2 million in 2017. This decrease was primarily due to a decrease in staff costs due to decreased headcount and decrease in rental costs in 2017, partially offset by increase in Selling and Distribution costs due to an increase in Marketplace business revenue. Our fulfillment expenses increased as a percentage of revenue increased from 14.8% in 2016 to 16.9% in 2017.

 

Marketing Expenses. Our marketing expenses decreased by 22.2% from US$9.7 million in 2016 to US$7.6 million in 2017. This decrease was primarily due to decreased digital marketing expenses, primarily because we decreased customer acquisition, retargeting and branding activities across all channels. Our marketing expenses decreased as a percentage of revenue from 7.6% in 2016 to 7.0% in 2017.

 

Technology and Content Expenses. Our technology and content expenses decreased by 8.4% from US$5.3 million in 2016 to US$4.8 million in 2017. This decrease was primarily due to decreased headcount of our development teams and contractor fee, and decreased hosting and license fees. Our technology and content expenses increased as a percentage of revenue at 4.1% in 2016 and 4.5% in 2017.

 

General and Administrative Expenses. Our general and administrative expenses decreased by 30.8% from US$16.0 million in 2016 to US$11.1 million in 2017. This decrease was primarily due to a decrease in deferred IPO expenses, share based compensation expenses, decreased staff to support the business which resulted in lower staff costs, and decreased rental cost as we moved to our Headquarters in Singapore, and decreased professional fees. This was partially offset by increase in our depreciation and amortization from the ownership of our Headquarters. Our general and administrative expenses decreased as a percentage of revenue from 12.5% in 2016 to 10.3% in 2017.

 

87

 

 

Government Grant. In 2016 and 2017, we recorded government grant of US$0.3 million and US$0.2 million, respectively. Our government grant primarily consisted of grants received from the Singapore Government related to capability development.

 

Operating Loss. Our operating loss improved by 32.5% from US$16.8 million in 2016 to US$11.3 million in 2017, primarily due to decreased fulfillment, marketing and technology and content expenses. Our operating loss as a percentage of revenue decreased from 13.1% in 2016 to 10.5% in 2017, due to, among other things, our increased fulfillment and general and administrative expenses as a percentage of revenue partially offset by our increased gross profit margin and increased cost optimization in marketing.

 

Other Income. Other income decreased from US$0.6 million in 2016 to U$0.4 million in 2017.

 

Other Expenses. Other expenses decreased by 20.2% from US$1.2 million in 2016 to US$0.9 million in 2017, primarily due to management decision to manage the fluctuations in the exchange rate of the Singapore dollar compared to other currencies in which we conduct business.

 

Finance Costs. Our finance costs increased from US$1.8 million in 2016 to US$3.3 million in 2017. This increase was primarily due to increased interest expenses on bank borrowings.

 

Finance Income. Our finance income decreased from US$0.04 million in 2016 to US$0.01 million in 2017. This decrease was primarily due to decreased interest income on bank deposits in 2017.

 

Change in Fair Value of Convertible Preference Shares. We recorded fair value gains on convertible preference shares of US$59.2 million in 2016 and US$70.1 million in 2017. The fair value gain in 2016 resulted from a decrease in fair value of our Series A Preference Shares of US$10.1 million, Series B Preference Shares of US$11.7 million, and Series C Preference Shares of US$18.0 million, and Series D Preference Shares of US$19.5 million. The fair value gain in 2017 resulted from a decrease in fair value of our Series A Preference Shares of US$7.7 million, Series B Preference Shares of US$11.8 million, Series C Preference Shares of US$25.8 million, and Series D Preference Shares of US$24.8 million. These decreases in fair value were primarily due to the decreased equity value of the Company resulting from the uncertain business environment and a slowdown in our business expansion due to budget constraints.

 

Profit for the Year. As a result of the foregoing, our profit for the year 2016 was US$40.1 million and profit for the year 2017 was US$54.9 million.

 

Adjusted EBITDA. Our Adjusted EBITDA improved from negative U$10.3 million in 2016 to negative US$7.7 million in 2017. Our negative Adjusted EBITDA decreased as a percentage of revenue from 8.0% in 2016 to 7.1% in 2017.

 

Non-IFRS Financial Measures

 

The following table presents our EBITDA and Adjusted EBITDA for the periods ending December 31, 2016, December 31, 2017, December 31, 2018, six month ended June 30, 2018 and June 30, 2019. EBITDA, Adjusted EBITDA and Adjusted EBITDA Margin are non IFRS financial measures. You should not consider EBITDA, Adjusted EBITDA and Adjusted EBITDA margin as a substitute for or superior to net income prepared in accordance with IFRS. Furthermore, because non-IFRS measures are not determined in accordance with IFRS, they are susceptible to varying calculations and may not be comparable to other similarly titled measures presented by other companies. We encourage investors and others to review our financial information in its entirety and not rely on a single financial measure.

 

We present Adjusted EBITDA as a supplemental performance measure because we believe that it facilitates operating performance comparisons from period to period and company to company by backing out potential differences caused by various items. We define EBITDA as net profit or loss excluding the age and book depreciation or amortization of property and equipment, leasehold land and intangible assets (affecting relative depreciation and amortization expenses), variations in capital structures (affecting interest income and interest expenses), and tax positions (affecting income tax expenses) (such as the impact on periods or companies of changes in effective tax rates). In addition, we define Adjusted EBITDA as EBITDA excluding share based compensation expenses, changes in foreign exchange rates that impact financial assets and liabilities denominated in currencies other than our functional currency (affecting foreign exchange gains/(losses), net), changes in the fair value of convertible preference shares, and write offs of property and equipment, other assets, intangible assets, IPO related transaction cost and recapitalization expenses, as these changes are non-cash, and in each case, we do not believe these exclusions to be reflective of the underlying performance of our business. In addition, Adjusted EBITDA Margin is defined to be Adjusted EBITDA as a percentage of revenue.

 

88

 

 

Some limitations of Adjusted EBITDA are that:

 

  Adjusted EBITDA does not reflect income tax payments that may represent a reduction in cash available to us;

 

  Adjusted EBITDA does not consider the impact of share-based compensation expenses or changes in the fair value of convertible preference shares, changes in the fair value of settlement of liabilities by shares, IPO related transaction cost and recapitalization expenses;

 

  Adjusted EBITDA does not consider the impact of foreign exchange losses;

 

  Adjusted EBITDA does not include other income, other expenses or reflect the interest expense of, or the cash requirements necessary to service interest or principal payments on, our debts; and

 

  Adjusted EBITDA excludes depreciation and amortization and although these are non-cash charges, the assets being depreciated and amortized may have to be replaced in the future.

 

The following table reconciles Adjusted EBITDA to profit/(loss) for the periods ending December 31, 2016, December 31, 2017 and December 31, 2018 and the six months ended June 30, 2018 and 2019:

 

   For the Year Ended
December 31
  

 For the Six Months Ended
June 30,

 
   2016   2017   2018   2018   2019 
   US$’000   US$’000   US$’000   US$’000   US$’000 
Profit/(Loss) for the year/period   40,070    54,908    (35,455)   (21,592)   (8,907)
Add: Interest expense   1,797    3,250    3,533    1,794    3,392 
Less: Interest income   (35)   (14)   (7)   (4)   (4)
Add: Depreciation of property and equipment   448    1,479    1,572    814    893 
Add: Amortization of leasehold land   192    199    213    107    109 
Add: Amortization of intangible assets   580    590    580    297    258 
Add: Income tax expenses   10    75    116    65    (30)
EBITDA   43,062    60,487    (29,448)   (18,519)   (4,289)
Less: Change in fair value of convertible preference shares   (59,233)   (70,063)   2,068    14,219     
Add/(Less): Foreign exchange losses/(gains), net   1,037    914    716    327    290 
Add: Employee share option expense   2,231    994    430    116    127 
Add: Recapitalization expenses           16,530         
Add: Provision for Bad Debt   5        60        19 
Add : Intangible asset written off   88            49     
Add : Property and equipment written off   44                54 
Add : Impairment-deferred IPO cost/IPO related transaction cost   2,502        1,299    297    1677 
Add : Change in fair value of settlement of liabilities by shares                   (1,802)
                          
Adjusted EBITDA   (10,264)   (7,668)   (8,345)   (3,511)   (3,924)

 

89

 

 

Liquidity and Capital Resources

 

Cash Flows and Working Capital

 

Our primary sources of liquidity have been bank borrowings, proceeds from operating activities, and issuances of shares. We typically make advance payments for purchases of luxury goods from our suppliers using trust receipt financing, where payments are made to suppliers by our banks and we repay the banks within 120 to 180 days using cash at banks or on hand. We receive payment from customers upon the sale of goods.

 

Our inventories decreased from US$22.0 million as of December 31, 2017 to US$19.0 million as of December 31, 2018. Our inventories decreased from US$19.0 million in 1H 2018 to US$13.2 million in 1H 2019. The overall decrease in inventories reflects the inventory required to support our sales volume. Our inventory turnover days were 107 days in 2017, 113 days in 2018, 104 days in 1H 2018, and 124 days in 1H 2019. Inventory turnover days for a given period equal average inventory balances at the beginning and the end of the period divided by total cost of revenue during the period and then multiplied by the number of days during the period. Our inventory balances will fluctuate over time due to a number of factors, including higher value items on hand, number of pieces of each SKU purchased, expansion in our product selection and changes in our brand and product mix.

 

As of June 30, 2019, we had a total of US$2.5 million (FY2018: US$2.6 million) in cash and cash equivalents and short-term deposits. Our cash and cash equivalents generally consist of bank deposits. As of June 30, 2019, we had revolving trade lines of credit for an aggregate amount of US$32.7 million (S$45.0 million) from several commercial banks in Singapore which we primarily use for trust receipt financing, a US$10.9 million (S$15.0 million) term loan facility from Oversea-Chinese Banking Corporation (“OCBC”) for working capital purposes, and a U$20.5 million (S$28.2 million) term loan facility from United Overseas Bank (“UOB”) in Singapore for land and construction costs related to our new headquarters and logistics center.

 

We had US$21.5 million (FY2018: US$23.0 million) outstanding under these revolving trade lines of credit, US$17.8 million (FY2018: US$18.2 million) outstanding under UOB term loan facility and US$7.0 million (FY2018: US$10.8 million) outstanding under the OCBC term loan as of June 30, 2019.

 

Based on current operating plans, assuming the continuation by our bankers to provide access to us to drawdown, roll forward existing short term financing facilities, and access to public market financing, we believe that we have resources to fund our operations for at least the next twelve months, but will require further funds to finance our activities thereafter. We may also consider potential financing options with banks or other third parties.

 

The following table sets forth a summary of our cash flows for the years indicated:

 

   For the Year Ended
December 31,
   For the Six Months Ended
June 30,
 
   2016   2017   2018   2018   2019 
   US$’000   US$’000   US$’000   US$’000   US$’000 
Summary Consolidated Statements of Cash Flows                    
Net cash used in operating activities   (14,187)   (8,108)   (6,470)   (6,156)   (1,362)
Net cash used in investing activities   (5,238)   (2,632)   (361)   (509)   (916)
Net cash provided from financing activities   11,152    5,850    3,135    4,555    2,212 
Net decrease in cash and cash equivalents   (8,273)   (4,890)   (3,696)   (2,110)   (66)
Cash and cash equivalents at beginning of period   19,812    11,926    7,312    7,312    2,604 
Effect of exchange rate changes on cash and cash equivalents   387    276    (1,012)   105    (29)
Cash and cash equivalents at end of period   11,926    7,312    2,604    5,307    2,509 

 

Operating Activities

 

Net cash used in operating activities for the six months ended June 30, 2019 was US$1.4 million, primarily attributable to a loss before tax of US$8.9 million, adjusted for non-cash items of US$3.6 million, which primarily consisted of adjustments for an decrease in fair value of equity settlement to various service providers of US$1.8 million, and a net decrease in working capital of US$6.5 million attributable to an decrease in trade and other payables of US$2.4 million, decrease in contract liabilities of US$1.2 million, decrease in trade and other receivables of US$3.6 million and a decrease in inventories of US$5.2 million.

 

Net cash used in operating activities for the six months ended June 30, 2018 was US$6.2 million, primarily attributable to a loss before tax of US$21.5 million, adjusted for non-cash items of US$17.7 million, which primarily consisted of adjustments for an decrease in fair value of convertible preference shares of US$14.2 million , and a net increase in working capital of US$1.1 million attributable to an decrease in trade and other payables of US$1.0 million, increase in contract liabilities of US$0.2 million and an increase in inventories of US$0.8 million.

 

Net cash used in operating activities in 2018 was US$6.5 million, primarily attributable to a loss before tax of US$35.3 million, adjusted for non-cash items of US$25.4 million, which primarily consisted of adjustments for an increase in fair value of convertible preference shares of US$2.1 million, recapitalization expenses of US$16.5 million and a net decrease in working capital of US$6.3 million attributable to an increase in trade and other payables of US$2.6 million, increase in contract liabilities of US$0.9 million and a decrease in inventories of US$2.3 million.

 

90

 

 

Net cash used in operating activities in 2017 was US$8.1 million, primarily attributable to a profit before tax of US$55.0 million, adjusted for non-cash items of US$64.0 million, which primarily consisted of adjustments for an increase in fair value of convertible preference shares of US$70.1 million, and a net decrease in working capital of US$3.1 million attributable to a decrease in trade and other payables of US$1.7 million, a decrease in prepayments of US$1.8 million related to prepayments to suppliers for the purchase of goods, and a decrease in inventories of US$2.8 million.

 

Net cash used in operating activities in 2016 was US$14.2 million, primarily attributable to a profit before tax of US$40.1 million, adjusted for non-cash items of US$54.0 million, which primarily consisted of an adjustment for an increase in fair value of convertible preference shares of US$59.2 million, and a net decrease of US$0.7 million in working capital. The net decrease in working capital was primarily attributable to a decrease in trade and other payables of US$1.7 million related to decreased payables to third party vendors, a decrease in deferred expenses of US$3.3 million, and a net increase of trade and other receivables of US$0.8 million related to increased receivables from third party platforms due to the expansion of our business.

 

Investing Activities

 

Net cash used in investing activities for the six months ended June 30, 2019 was US$0.9 million, primarily relating to purchase of property and equipment for office use acquisition of intangible assets and the recognition of right of use of assets from the adoption of IFRS 16 on 1 January 2019.

 

Net cash used in investing activities for the six months ended June 30, 2018 was US$0.5 million, consisting primarily of US$0.4 million relating to purchase of property and equipment for office use and US$0.1 million used in acquisition of intangible assets.

 

Net cash used in investing activities in 2018 was US$0.4 million, consisting primarily of US$0.4 million relating to purchase of property and equipment for office use and US$0.1 million used in acquisition of intangible assets.

 

Net cash used in investing activities in 2017 was US$2.6 million, consisting primarily of US$2.3 million relating to the construction of our new headquarters and office, and the purchase of property and equipment for office use and equipment, and the acquisition of intangible assets of US$0.3 million related to software investment and platform development.

 

Net cash used in investing activities in 2016 was US$5.2 million, consisting primarily of US$4.4 million relating to the construction of new headquarters and office, and the purchase of property and equipment for office use and equipment and the acquisition of intangible assets of US$0.7 million related to software investment and platform development.

 

Financing Activities

 

Net cash provided by financing activities for the six months ended June 30, 2019 was US$2.2 million, primarily consisting of US$2.7 million in proceeds from interest bearing loans and borrowings in connection with drawdowns under trust receipt financing related to inventory purchases, partially offset by US$15.1 million for the repayment of interest bearing loans and borrowings, primarily consisting of repayments under trust receipt financing and full repayment of venture debt term loan and the net proceeds of US$14.6 million from the issuance of ordinary shares and exercise of warrants from the April 2019 public offering and May 2019 warrant exchange.

 

Net cash provided by financing activities for the six months ended June 30, 2018 was US$4.6 million, primarily consisting of US$27.5 million in proceeds from interest bearing loans and borrowings in connection with drawdowns under trust receipt financing related to inventory purchases, partially offset by US$23.0 million for the repayment of interest bearing loans and borrowings, primarily consisting of repayments under trust receipt financing and full repayment of venture debt term loan.

 

91

 

 

Net cash provided by financing activities in 2018 was US$3.1 million, primarily consisting of US$54.1 million in proceeds from interest bearing loans and borrowings in connection with drawdowns under trust receipt financing related to inventory purchases, partially offset by US$51.0 million for the repayment of interest bearing loans and borrowings, primarily consisting of repayments under trust receipt financing and full repayment of venture debt term loan.

 

Net cash provided by financing activities in 2017 was US$5.9 million, primarily consisting of US$68.3 million in proceeds from interest bearing loans and borrowings in connection with drawdowns under trust receipt financing related to inventory purchases, partially offset by US$64.1 million for the repayment of interest bearing loans and borrowings, primarily consisting of repayments under trust receipt financing.

 

Net cash provided by financing activities in 2016 was US$11.2 million, primarily consisting of proceeds from interest bearing loans and borrowings of US$86.2 million in connection with our acquisition of leasehold land and headquarters and office construction, term loan from a financial institution, and an increase in trust receipt financing related to inventory purchases, partially offset by US$75.0 million for the repayment of interest bearing loans and borrowings, primarily consisting of the repayment of trust receipt financing.

 

Capital Expenditures

 

We made capital expenditures of US$0.5 million and US$0.9 million for the six months ended June 30, 2018 and 2019 respectively. Our capital expenditures mainly included purchases of property and equipment, renovation of office, warehouse and retail spaces and purchases of computers, software and office equipment and intangible assets related to platform development.

 

We made capital expenditures of US$5.2 million, US$2.6 million, and US$0.4 million in 2016, 2017 and 2018 respectively. In the past three years, our capital expenditures mainly included purchases of property and equipment, renovation of office, warehouse and retail spaces and purchases of computers, software and office equipment and intangible assets related to platform development.

 

Our capital expenditures for 2019 are expected to be US$0.3 million, which we expect to fund primarily through our cash on hand. Our planned capital expenditures for 2019 will consist primarily of expenditures related to office renovations, and purchases of computers, software and office equipment.

 

92

 

 

Borrowings

 

As of Jun 30, 2019, our total borrowings, including current borrowings and non-current borrowings, were US$47.3 million, which consisted of trust receipt loans, a venture debt term loan, loans from a shareholder of a subsidiary, a secured term loan, an unsecured term loan and other borrowings.

 

Lender   Type of Loan
(Principal Amount)/Type of Facility (Line of Credit)
  Interest Rates and
Repayment Terms
  Security/Guarantee
United Overseas Bank (“UOB”)   Venture debt term loan in the amount of S$4 million, granted in September 2014;   Venture debt term loan: the applicable one-month Singapore Swap Offer Rate plus 1.75% or the prevailing one-month cost of funds plus 1.75%, whichever is higher. As of December 31, 2018, the Venture debt term loan was fully repaid.   All the banking facilities are secured by:
             
    Trust receipts facilities in the amount of S$10 million, granted in December 2013, and increased to S$40 million in September 2014;22-year term loan of S$25.7 million, comprising two tranches of S$5.7 million and S$20 million each granted in September 2014, and increased to S$25.8 million comprising two tranches of S$5.8 million and S$20 million each in November 2014 and additional $2.4 million term loan granted in July 2017  

Trust receipts facilities: For Singapore dollar denominated bills, UOB’s cost of funds plus 1.50% per annum or the applicable Swap Offer Rate as determined by the bank on the date of the transaction plus 1.50% per annum, whichever is higher; for bills denominated in other currencies, London Interbank Offered Rate plus 1.50% per annum or the bank’s cost of funds as determined by the bank on the day of the transaction plus 1.50% per annum, whichever is higher. Borrowings under the facilities must be repaid within 120-180 days. As of June 30, 2019, US$17.8 million was outstanding under these trust receipt facilities.

 

Term loan: for the first 24 months from the date of first drawdown, the applicable one-month Swap Offer Rate plus 1.75% per annum or the prevailing one-month cost of funds plus 1.75% per annum, whichever is higher; thereafter the applicable one-month Swap Offer Rate plus 1.50% per annum or the prevailing one-month cost of funds plus 1.50% per annum, whichever is higher. The term loan is to be repaid through 240 monthly installments of S$107,500 from the date of the issuance of the Temporary Occupation Permit for our headquarters or on April 30, 2017, whichever is earlier. As of June 30, 2019, US$17.8 million was outstanding under this facility.

 

  (i) a first legal mortgage over land and property and our headquarters that is under construction; and (ii) legal assignment of all rights, title and interests in the construction contract, insurance policies, performance bonds (if any), tenancy agreements and sale and purchase agreements in respect of our headquarters that is under construction and legal assignment of rental proceeds from the land and property and sales proceeds from any sale of our headquarters which is under construction. In October 2015, we issued 130,255 warrants (“2015 Warrants”) to UOB to secure the venture debt term loan facility which entitles UOB to subscribe for ordinary shares of our Company (on a one for one basis) at an exercise price of S$11.52. The warrants lapse and expire after four years from their issuance date. If a qualified IPO does not occur on or before December 31, 2017, we are required to pay S$0.5 million to UOB within 30 days after expiration of the 2015 Warrants if they remain unexercised.
        Term loan 2: for the first 24 months from the date of first drawdown, the applicable one-month Swap Offer Rate plus 1.75% per annum or the prevailing one-month cost of funds plus 1.75% per annum, whichever is higher; thereafter the applicable one-month Swap Offer Rate plus 1.50% per annum or the prevailing one-month cost of funds plus 1.50% per annum, whichever is higher. The term loan 2 shall be repaid over by monthly instalments (comprising principal and interest), based on the interest rate(s) set out above. In respect of each drawing, the first of such monthly instalments shall be payable on 31 August 2017.    

 

93

 

 

The following table sets forth the details of our borrowings as of June 30, 2019:

 

Lender   Type of Loan (Principal Amount)/Type of Facility
(Line of Credit)
  Interest Rates and
Repayment Terms
  Security/Guarantee
DBS Bank   Trade facility for import Bills Receivables Purchase with a total limit of S$5 million, granted in November 2014   For Singapore dollar denominated bills, the prevailing Singapore Interbank Offered Rate plus 2.50% per annum, or for bills denominated in other currencies, the bank’s prevailing cost of funds plus 2.50% per annum.   Unsecured
             
        Borrowings under the facility must be repaid within 150 days. As of June 30, 2019, US$1.2 million were outstanding under this facility.    
             
    Trade facility agreement to finance direct purchase of goods from supplier, with a total limit of S$5 million, granted in June 2018  

For Singapore dollar denominated bills, the prevailing Singapore Interbank Offered Rate plus Margin of 2.5% per annum.

 

Borrowings under the facility must be repaid within 150 days. As of June 30, 2019, US$2.5 million were outstanding under this facility.

  Unsecured Warrants worth S$1 million at an exercise price of S$11.30 can be issued, which entitles DBS Bank to subscribe for ordinary shares of our Company.
             
Lion-OCBC Capital Asia I Holding Pte. Ltd., or LOCA, and Oversea-Chinese Banking Corporation Limited, or OCBC   Term loan facility of S$15 million granted in November 2015   Term loan for a period of 36 months after the first utilization date. Interest for the first year from utilization date is 6.0% per annum, 7% per annum for 2nd year and 8.0% per annum for 3rd year. On 10 May 2016 and 15 November 2016, the Company drew down S$7,500,000 and S$7,500,000 respectively on the term loan facility. As of June 30, 2019, US$7.0 million was outstanding under this facility.   Unsecured. We first utilized this facility in May 2016 with a drawdown of S$7.5 million and upon utilization of any amounts under this facility, each of LOCA and OCBC are issued a warrant entitling each of them to subscribe for ordinary shares in our company at an exercise price of S$9.66025. The number of ordinary shares that each of LOCA and OCBC is entitled to subscribe for pursuant to the exercise of the warrant would be equal to (i) 20% to 25% (depending on the date of exercise) of the amount drawn down to date (regardless of any amounts that have been repaid); divided by (ii) the exercise price. Such warrants expire 36 months after their issue date.

 

94

 

 

Contractual Obligations and Commitments

 

The following table sets forth our contractual obligations and commitments as of June 30, 2019:

 

   Total   2020   From 2021
To 2023
   From 2024
To 2025
   After 2025 
   (US$ in thousands) 
Operating lease commitments   147    139    8         
Finance lease obligations   759    537    222         
Property and equipment   304    304             
Interest-bearing borrowings                         
– Trust receipts   22,664    22,664             
– Promissory note   29    29                
– Unsecured term loan   7,412    7,412             
– Other borrowings   254    254             
– Term loan   23,067    1,563    4,502    2,845    14,157 
Total   54,636    32,902    4,732    2,845    14,157 

 

Other than those shown above, we did not have any significant capital and other commitments, long-term obligations, or guarantees as of June 30, 2019.

 

95

 

 

Off Balance Sheet Commitments and Arrangements

 

We do not have any off balance sheet commitments and arrangements.

 

Seasonality

 

We experience seasonality in our business, reflecting a combination of traditional retail seasonality patterns and new patterns associated with online luxury retail in particular. Our sales have historically been higher during festive periods, especially the December holiday season, as our business tends to benefit from consumers’ increased leisure time and discretionary spending (as a result of, for example, yearend bonuses).

 

Inflation

 

Inflation in Singapore and other countries in which we do business has not materially affected our results of operations in recent years. Although we have not been affected by inflation in the past, we may be affected if any of the countries in which we do business experience high rates of inflation in the future.

 

Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosure about Market Risk

 

Foreign Exchange Risk

 

We operate in various countries in the Asia Pacific region, including Singapore, Australia, Malaysia and Indonesia, among other countries. We make inventory purchases primarily in Euros and U.S. dollars, incur employee compensation expenses and administrative expenses primarily in Singapore dollars, and incur certain other expenses in various other currencies. We derive a significant portion of our revenue from sales denominated in various local currencies other than the Singapore dollar, such as the Australian dollar, Korean won, New Taiwan dollar, Hong Kong dollar, Thai baht, Malaysian ringgit and Indonesian rupiah. As a result, we bear risks associated with the fluctuation of foreign exchange rates. Because we report our results in the Singapore dollar, the difference in exchange rates in one period compared to another directly impacts period to period comparisons of our operating results. In addition, the value of your investment will be affected by the exchange rate between the U.S. dollar and the Singapore dollar and these and other currencies because the value of our business is effectively denominated in Singapore dollars and those other currencies, while we will be traded in U.S. dollars.

 

Currently, we have not implemented any comprehensive strategy to mitigate risks related to the impact of fluctuations in currency exchange rates.

 

Interest Rate Risk

 

Our exposure to interest rate risk primarily relates to (i) the interest income generated by excess cash, which is mostly held in interest bearing bank deposits and (ii) borrowings from banks and other financial institutions. Interest earning instruments carry a degree of interest rate risk. We have not been exposed to, nor do we anticipate being exposed to, material risks due to changes in market interest rates. However, we may have decreased interest income and increased interest expenses due to changes in market interest rates. Substantially all of our borrowings as of December 31, 2018 were subject to floating rates, within a specified band. For example, interest bearing bank deposits are short to medium term in nature, but given the significant cash and bank balances held by us, any variation in the interest rates may have a material impact on our results of operations. We have not used derivative financial instruments in our investment portfolio.

 

Critical Accounting Policies, Judgments and Estimates

 

An accounting policy is considered critical if it requires an accounting estimate to be made based on assumptions about matters that are highly uncertain at the time such estimate is made, and if different accounting estimates that reasonably could have been used, or changes in the accounting estimates that are reasonably likely to occur periodically, could materially impact the consolidated financial statements.

 

96

 

 

We prepare our financial statements in conformity with IFRS, which requires us to make significant judgments, estimates and assumptions. We continually evaluate these judgments, estimates and assumptions based on the most recently available information, our own historical experiences and various other assumptions that we believe to be reasonable under the circumstances. Since the use of estimates is an integral component of the financial reporting process, actual results could differ from our expectations as a result of changes in our estimates. Some of our accounting policies require a higher degree of judgment than others in their application and require us to make significant accounting estimates.

 

The following descriptions of critical accounting policies, judgments and estimates should be read in conjunction with our consolidated financial statements and other disclosures included in this prospectus. When reviewing our financial statements, you should consider (i) our selection of critical accounting policies, (ii) the judgments and other uncertainties affecting the application of such policies and (iii) the sensitivity of reported results to changes in conditions and assumptions.

 

Revenue Recognition

 

We generate revenue primarily from our Merchandise Business and Marketplace Business. Revenue is recognised to the extent that it is probable that the economic benefits will flow to us and the revenue can be reliably measured. We evaluate whether it is appropriate to record the gross amount of service sales and related costs or the net amount earned as commissions. Provisions for sales returns are estimated using historical experience and recorded as a reduction to revenue.

 

Generally, when we are primarily responsible in a transaction, are subject to inventory risk, and/or have latitude in establishing prices or have several but not all of these indicators, revenues are recorded at the gross sale price. When we do not have the primary responsibility in a transaction, do not bear the inventory risk and do not have the ability to establish the price, revenues are recorded on a net basis. Refundable payments received from customers, where risks and rewards of the goods have yet to transfer over, are recorded as advances from customers as at the end of each reporting date.

 

Merchandise Business. We recognise revenues from online direct sales and offline channels on a gross basis. Revenue is recognised when the significant risks and rewards of ownership of the goods have passed to the buyer in the course of ordinary activities and is measured at the fair value of the consideration received or receivable, net of estimated returns and trade discounts. In addition, we launched a loyalty point program in April 2013 where customers who purchase from us can accumulate loyalty points to redeem credits entitling them to a discount on future purchases. A portion of the revenue from the sale of goods attributable to the award of purchase credits is deferred until they are redeemed or used. Any remaining unutilized credits are recognised as revenue upon expiry. We estimate the fair value of points awarded based on the dollar value of the loyalty credits which can be exchanged using the predetermined number of loyalty points and the expected redemption rate. As points issued under the program expire within a year, such estimates are subject to significant uncertainty.

 

Marketplace Business. Revenues from our Marketplace Business primarily consist of fees charged to individual third party sellers for participating in our online marketplace. Commission fee revenues are recognised on a net basis when the underlying transaction is completed.

 

Rental income from leasing of inventories. Rental income arising from rental of luxury products to customers is accounted for on a straight-line basis over the rental period. The aggregate costs arising from the underlying transactions are recognised under the cost of revenue.

 

Rental income from leasing of office building. Rental income arising from operating leases on building is accounted for on a straight-line basis over the lease term. The aggregate costs of incentives provided to lessees are recognised as a reduction of rental income over the lease term on a straight-line basis.

 

97

 

 

Use of estimates and judgements

 

(a) Impairment of non-financial assets

 

Impairment exists when the carrying value of an asset or Cash Generating Unit (“CGU”) exceeds its recoverable amount, which is the higher of its fair value less costs of disposal and its value in use. The fair value less costs of disposal calculation is based on available data from binding sales transactions, conducted at arm’s length, for similar assets or observable market prices less incremental costs for disposing of the asset. The value in use calculation is based on a discounted cash flow (“DCF”) model. The estimated cash flows are derived from the future budgets and do not include restructuring activities that the Group is not yet committed to or significant future investments that will enhance the asset’s performance of the CGU being tested. The recoverable amount is sensitive to the discount rate used for the DCF model as well as the expected future cash-inflows and the growth rate used for extrapolation purposes. These estimates are most crucial in determining the recoverable amount of goodwill recognised by the Group.

 

(b) Fair value of financial instruments

 

When the fair values of financial liabilities recorded in the statement of financial position cannot be measured based on quoted prices in active markets, their fair value is measured using valuation techniques including the DCF model and significantly influenced by the movement in the estimated initial public offering (“IPO”) prices. The inputs to these models are taken from observable markets where possible, but where this is not feasible, a degree of judgment is required in establishing fair values. Judgments include considerations of inputs such as discount rate and the IPO price prior to the recapitalization; following the recapitalization, judgements are on discount rates. Changes in assumptions about these factors could affect the reported fair value of financial instruments.

 

(c) Share-based payments

 

The Group initially measures the cost of equity-settled transactions with employees using a Black Scholes model to determine the fair value of the equity incurred. Estimating fair value for share-based payment transactions requires determination of the most appropriate valuation model, which is dependent on the terms and conditions of the grant. This estimate also requires determination of the most appropriate inputs to the valuation model including the expected life of the share option, volatility and dividend yield and making assumptions about them.

 

(d) Revenue recognition — Provision for sales returns

 

For contracts that permit the customer to return an item, revenue is recognized to the extent that it is highly probable that a significant reversal in the amount of cumulative revenue recognized will not incur. Therefore, the amount of revenue recognized is adjusted for expected returns, which are estimated based on historical data.

 

(e) Revaluation of property and equipment — Building

 

The Group carries its building at its revalued amount, which approximates its fair value. Changes in fair values are recognised in other comprehensive income. The Group engaged a real estate valuation expert to assess the fair value as at December 31, 2017. The fair value of the building is determined by an independent real estate valuation expert using an open market value approach.

 

(f) Taxes

 

Deferred tax assets are recognised for unused tax losses and temporary differences to the extent that it is probable that taxable profit will be available against which the losses and temporary differences can be utilized. Significant management judgment is required to determine the amount of deferred tax assets that can be recognised, based upon the likely timing and the level of future taxable profits together with future tax planning strategies.

 

(g) Measurement of fair values

 

A number of the Group’s accounting policies and disclosures require the measurement of fair values, for both financial and non-financial assets and liabilities.

 

Management determines the policies and procedures for both recurring and non-recurring fair value measurements.

 

External valuers are involved for valuation of significant assets and liabilities. Involvement of external valuers is decided upon annually by Management after discussion with and approval by the Board. Selection criteria include market knowledge, reputation, independence and whether professional standards are maintained. The Management decides, after discussions with the Group’s external valuers, which valuation techniques and inputs to use for each case.

 

98

 

 

At each reporting date, the Group analyses the movements in the values of assets and liabilities which are required to be measured or re-assessed as per the Group’s accounting policies. For this analysis, Management verifies the major inputs applied in the latest valuation by agreeing the information in the valuation computation to contracts and other relevant documents.

 

The Group, in conjunction with the Group’s external valuers, also compares the change in the fair value of each asset and liability with relevant external sources to determine whether the change is reasonable.

 

For the purpose of fair value disclosures, the Group has determined classes of assets and liabilities on the basis of the nature, characteristics and risks of the asset or liability and the level of the fair value hierarchy as explained below.

 

When measuring the fair value of an asset or a liability, the Group uses observable market data as far as possible. Fair values are categorized into different levels in a fair value hierarchy based on the inputs used in the valuation techniques as follows:

 

  Level 1: quoted prices (unadjusted) in active markets for identical assets or liabilities
     
  Level 2: inputs other than quoted prices included in Level 1 that are observable for the asset or liability, either directly (i.e. as prices) or indirectly (i.e. derived from prices).
     
  Level 3: inputs for the asset or liability that are not based on observable market data (unobservable inputs).

 

If the inputs used to measure the fair value of an asset or a liability fall into different levels of the fair value hierarchy, then the fair value measurement is categorized in its entirety in the same level of the fair value hierarchy as the lowest level input that is significant to the entire measurement (with Level 3 being the lowest).

 

The Group recognises transfers between levels of the fair value hierarchy as of the end of the reporting period during which the change has occurred.

 

h) Recapitalization

 

A ‘reverse acquisition’ is a business combination in which the legal acquirer — i.e. the entity that issues the securities (i.e. listed entity) becomes the acquiree for accounting purposes and the legal acquiree becomes the acquirer for accounting purposes. It is the application in accordance with IFRS 3 Business Combinations on identifying the acquirer, which results in the identification of the legal acquiree as the accounting acquirer in a reverse acquisition. Application in accordance with IFRS 3 Business Combinations on identifying the acquirer may result in identifying the listed entity as the accounting acquiree and the unlisted entity as the accounting acquirer. In this case, if the listed entity is:

 

  A business, IFRS 3 Business Combinations applies;

 

  Not a business, IFRS 2 Share-based Payment applies to the transaction once the acquirer has been identified following the principles in accordance with IFRS 3 Business Combinations.

 

The accounting policies set out below have been applied consistently to all periods presented in the financial statements appearing elsewhere in this prospectus except for the following:

 

The Group derecognises a financial asset when the contractual rights to the cash flows from the asset expire, or it transfers the rights to receive the contractual cash flows on the financial asset in a transaction in which substantially all the risks and rewards of ownership of the financial asset are transferred, or it neither transfers nor retains substantially all of the risks and rewards of ownership and does not retain control over the transferred asset Any interest in transferred financial assets that is created or retained by the Group is recognised as a separate asset or liability.

 

Financial assets and financial liabilities are offset and the net amount presented in the statement of financial position when, and only when, the Group currently has a legally enforceable right to offset the amounts and intends either to settle them on a net basis or to realise the asset and settle the liability simultaneously.

 

The Group classifies non-derivative financial assets into the following categories: financial assets at fair value through profit or loss, held-to-maturity financial assets, loans and receivables and available-for-sale financial assets.

 

99

 

 

Recent Accounting Pronouncements

 

The Group has applied the following amendments for the first time for the annual period beginning on January 1, 2018:

 

Applicable to 2018 financial statements

 

  Revenue from Contracts with Customers IFRS 15; and

 

  IFRS 9 Financial Instruments.

 

The first-time implementation of the above standards did not have a material current and retrospective effect on the financial statements as of January 1, 2017 and 2018 and accordingly, have not been restated.

 

From January 1, 2018, as a result of the amendments to IFRS 15 and 9, the Group has provided additional disclosures in relation to disaggregation of revenue and classification of financial assets and liabilities in line with the new classification requirements of IFRS 9.

 

New standards and interpretations not adopted

 

A number of new standards and interpretations to standards are effective for annual periods beginning after January 1, 2019 and earlier application is permitted; however, the Group has not early applied the following new or amended standards in preparing these statements. The Group is currently still assessing the potential impact of adopting these new standards and interpretations, on the financial statements of the Group.

 

Applicable to 2019 financial statements

 

New standards   Potential impact on the financial statements
Summary of the requirements    
     
IFRS 16 Leases    
     

IFRS 16 Leases

 

IFRS 16 eliminates the lessee’s classification of leases as either operating leases or finance leases and introduces a single lessee accounting model. Applying the new model, a lessee is required to recognise right-of-use (ROU) assets and lease liabilities for all leases with a term of more than 12 months, unless the underlying asset is of low value.

 

The Group has performed a preliminary high-level assessment of the new standard on its existing operating lease arrangements as a lessee. Based on the preliminary assessment, the Group expects these operating leases to be recognised as ROU assets with corresponding lease liabilities under the new standard.

 

The operating lease commitments on an undiscounted basis amount to approximately 1.2% of the total assets and more than approximately 1.0% of total liabilities. Assuming no additional new operating leases in future years until the effective date, the Group expects the amount of ROU asset and lease liability to be lower due to discounting and as the lease terms run down.

     

IFRS 16 substantially carries forward the lessor accounting requirements in IAS 17 Leases. Accordingly, a lessor continues to classify its leases as operating leases or finance leases, and to account for these two types of leases using the IAS 17 operating lease and finance lease accounting models respectively. However, IFRS 16 requires more extensive disclosures to be provided by a lessor.

 

When effective, IFRS 16 replaces existing lease accounting guidance, including IAS 17, IFRIC 4 Determining whether an Arrangement contains a Lease, SIC 15 Operating LeasesIncentives, and SIC 27 Evaluating the Substance of Transactions Involving the Legal Form of a Lease.

 

IFRS 16 is effective for annual periods beginning on or after January 1, 2019, with early adoption permitted if IFRS 15 is also applied.

  As at 1 January 2019, the Group expects an increase in right-of-use assets of US$0.5 million and a corresponding increase in lease liability. The nature of expenses related to those leases will now change because the Group will recognize a depreciation charge for right-of-use assets and interest expense on lease liabilities. Previously, the Group recognized operating lease expense on a straight-line basis over the term of the lease, and recognized assets and liabilities only to the extent that there was a timing difference between actual lease payments and the expense recognized. No significant impact is expected for the Group’s finance leases.

 

100

 

 

Other standards

 

The following amended standards and interpretations are not expected to have a significant impact on the Group’s financial statements.

 

  IFRIC 23 Uncertainty over Tax Treatments.

 

  Prepayment Features with Negative Compensation (Amendments to IFRS 9).

 

  Long-term Interests in Associates and Joint Ventures (Amendments to IAS 28).

 

  Plan Amendment, Curtailment or Settlement (Amendments to IAS 19).

 

  Annual Improvements to IFRS Standards 2015–2017 Cycle — various standards.

 

  Amendments to References to Conceptual Framework in IFRS Standards.

 

  IFRS 17 Insurance Contracts.

 

101

 

 

MANAGEMENT

 

The following table sets our current officers and directors:

 

Directors and Executive Officers   Age   Position/Title
Samuel Lim   39   Class III Director, Chairman and Chief Executive Officer
Chua Kee Lock   57   Class II Director
Jeff Richards   47   Class I Director
Roderick Perry   73   Class III Director
Daniel Lim   35   Chief Product Officer
Benjamin Han   35   Chief Marketing Officer
Torres Oey   46   Chief Technology Officer
Nupur Sadiwala   35   Chief Financial Officer
Cassie Mah   49   Chief Operating Officer, Head of Sales
Lynn Ng   47   Head of Operations
Evelyn Lim   42   Financial Controller

 

Biographical information concerning our directors and executive officers listed above is set forth below.

 

Samuel Lim. Mr. Lim serves as Chairman and Chief Executive Officer, positions he has held since consummation of our Business Combination on December 19, 2018. Mr. Lim is a Co-Founder of Reebonz and has been our Chairman and Chief Executive Officer since our inception in 2009. Mr. Lim’s foray into entrepreneurship began as early as when he was 20. In 2000, he founded and held the position of Chief Executive Officer at eFusion Pte. Ltd, one of Southeast Asia’s largest mobile content company. In 2004, Mr. Lim founded and held the position of Chief Executive Officer at eFusion Solutions Pte. Ltd., a company that specialized in direct sales and database marketing for the banking and finance sector for unsecured financial products mainly consumer loans. Both of these two companies were subsequently acquired by publicly-listed companies. Mr. Lim holds a Bachelor of Accountancy from Nanyang Technological University in Singapore. He served as President of the Audiotext Service Providers Association, President of the Entrepreneurs Organization Singapore, and is a member of the Young Presidents’ Organization. He currently also serves on the board of governors of Singapore Polytechnic.

 

102

 

 

Chua Kee Lock. Mr. Chua serves as a non-executive director, a position he has held since consummation of the Business Combination on December 19, 2018. He has been a non-executive director of Reebonz since 2011. Since 2008, Mr. Chua has been the president and chief executive officer of the Vertex Group, a Singapore-headquartered venture capital group. Prior to joining the Vertex Group, Mr. Chua was the president and an executive director of Biosensors International Group, Ltd., a developer and manufacturer of medical devices used in interventional cardiology and critical care procedures from 2006 to 2008. Previously, from 2003 to 2006, Mr. Chua was a managing director of Walden International, a U.S.-headquartered venture capital firm. From 2001 to 2003, Mr. Chua served as deputy president of NatSteel Ltd., a Singapore industrial products company active in Asia Pacific. From 2000 to 2016, Mr. Chua served as a member on the board of directors at Logitech International S.A. He earned a Bachelor of Science in Mechanical Engineering from University of Wisconsin at Madison and a Master of Science in Engineering from Stanford University under a distinguished scholarship from NatSteel.

 

Jeff Richards. Mr. Richards serves as a non-executive director, a position he has held since consummation of the Business Combination on December 19 2018. He has been a non-executive director of Reebonz since July 2015. He is currently employed by GGV Capital, where he has served as a managing partner focusing on investments in the Internet, software and mobile sectors since 2008. He currently sits on the board of numerous other private companies including Bigcommerce, Boxed, Brightwheel and Percolate, and has previously sat on the boards of Appirio, Buddy Media and BlueKai. From 2005 to 2008, Mr. Richards served as a vice president of digital content services at VeriSign, Inc. after a company he had co-founded in 2003, R4 Global Solutions Inc., was acquired by VeriSign, Inc. From 1997 to 2002, he co-founded and held an executive position at QuantumShift where he led the operations, sales and marketing teams of the venture-backed hosted software company operating in the telecommunications sector. From 1995 to 1997, Mr. Richards was a management consultant in the strategy and organizational change practice at PricewaterhouseCoopers. Mr. Richards holds a Bachelor of Arts in Government from Dartmouth College.

 

Roderick Perry. Mr. Perry serves as a non-executive director, a position he has held since consummation of the Business Combination on December 19, 2018. Mr. Perry served as Executive Chairman and Director of DOTA since its inception, has over 30 years of experience in investment management. From 1985 to 2005, Mr. Perry was employed by 3i Group plc, one of the oldest private equity firms in the world, listed on the London Stock Exchange (LSE:III). During his tenure at 3i, Mr. Perry held a number of positions, including Sector Advisor covering systems and software sectors before joining the Executive Committee in 1996. He was an Executive Director of the Group (on the Board of 3i Group plc) from 1999 to 2005. He was a member of the Executive Committee and Investment Committee from 1997 to 2005. From 1997 to 2001 he was responsible for developing the 3i investment business in Asia Pacific, and from 2001 to 2005, he was the Global Head of Venture Capital for 3i. Mr. Perry was involved in the origination, execution and disposal of numerous technology venture capital investments internationally. Mr. Perry was a Non-Executive Director of PartyGaming plc, a FTSE listed company, from 2005, and became Chairman in 2008, until 2011. PartyGaming plc went public on the London Stock Exchange in 2005 at a valuation of £4.76 billion. He became Deputy Chairman of, Senior Independent Director and Chairman of Remuneration Committee of BWIN.Party, one of the largest publicly traded online gaming business at the time, when BWIN.Party and PartyGaming merged in 2011 and retired from that Board in July 2015. From 2006 to 2009, Mr. Perry was a Non-Executive Director at Gulf of Guinea Energy (Nigeria) and a Non-Executive Director of Indago Petroleum from 2005 to 2009, an AIM listed oil and gas exploration company operating in Oman. Mr. Perry started his technology career with GCHQ, a British intelligence and security agency. Since February 2015, he has served as an advisor to Amanat Holdings PJSC in Dubai, a private equity firm which is listed on the Dubai Stock Exchange. Amanat invests in Healthcare and Education in the region. Mr. Perry has been Chairman of the Audit and Risk Committee of Ithmar Capital Partners, which is a Dubai International Financial Centre regulated company in Dubai, investing in special situations, since December 2016. He has also served since January 2017 as Chairman of the Board of Objectivity Ltd., an agile software developer and system integrator based in the UK and Poland and has been an advisor to the company since January 2014. He is Chairman of Draper Oakwood Royalty Capital Ltd. He holds a BSc (Hons) in Physics from the University of Salford and is a Chartered Member of the Institution for Engineering and Technology. We believe Mr. Perry is well-qualified to serve as a member of the board due to his experience in making financial investments in small and medium sized companies, in mergers and acquisitions, and his experience serving as a member of the boards of publicly listed companies.

 

103

 

 

Daniel Lim. Mr. Lim serves as our Chief Product Officer, a position he has held since consummation of the Business Combination on December 19, 2018. He is a Co-Founder of Reebonz and has been the Chief Product Officer of Reebonz since our inception in 2009. He is also a co-founder of Zuunbo Pte. Ltd., All the Rage Pte. Ltd, and Qanvast Pte. Ltd. Mr. Lim holds a Bachelor of Business Management degree from Singapore Management University.

 

Benjamin Han. Mr. Han serves as our Chief Marketing Officer, a position he has held since consummation of the Business Combination on December 19, 2018. He is a Co-Founder of Reebonz and has been the Chief Marketing Officer of Reebonz since our inception in 2009. He is also a co-founder of Zuunbo Pte. Ltd, All the Rage Pte. Ltd and Qanvast Pte. Ltd. Mr. Han holds a Bachelor of Science degree in Real Estate from National University of Singapore.

 

Torres Oey. Mr. Oey serves as our Chief Technology Officer, a position he has held since consummation of the Business Combination on December 19, 2018. He has been the Chief Technology Officer of Reebonz since our founding in 2009, and is responsible for our IT infrastructure and Research and Development. His prior experience includes employment with eFusion Pte. Ltd. as Chief Operating Officer from 2005 to 2009, Aspial Corporation as Technical Manager from 2001 to 2005 and i-One.net International as Network Manager from 1999 to 2001. Mr. Oey holds a Bachelor’s degree in Computer Science from Curtin University of Technology in Perth, Australia.

 

Nupur Sadiwala. Ms. Sadiwala serves as our Chief Financial Officer, a position she has held since consummation of the Business Combination on December 19, 2018. She has been the Chief Financial Officer of Reebonz since 2018. She was previously Reebonz’s Head of Corporate Development and Strategic Projects since 2015 and Regional General Manager Southest Asia since 2017. Her prior experience includes employment from 2011 to 2015 with Goldman Sachs, Inc., where she was in the Investment Banking Group and from 2006-2009 with Deloitte Consulting in their Strategy and Operations Group. Ms. Sadiwala holds a Master of Business Administration from Columbia Business School and Bachelor of Science degree from Washington University in St. Louis.

 

Cassie Mah. Ms. Mah serves as our Chief Operating Officer, a position she has held since consummation of the Business Combination on December 19, 2018. She has been the Chief Operating Officer and Head of Sales of Reebonz since 2016 and 2018, respectively. She was previously Head of Operations since 2014. Her experience includes employment with eFusion Solutions Pte. Ltd. as Chief Operating Officer from 2006 to 2014 and IBC Asia Ltd. as Senior Marketing Manager and Head of Database Department from 1993 to 2004. She holds a Bachelor of Business Administration degree from University of Western Sydney in Australia.

 

Lynn Ng. Ms. Ng serves as our Head of Operations, a position she has held since consummation of the Business Combination on December 19, 2018. She has been the Head of Operations of Reebonz since 2016. Her experience includes employment with eFusion Solutions Pte. Ltd. as Head of Operations from 2007 to 2014 and IBC Asia Ltd. as Senior Marketing Manager from 1997 to 2007. She holds a Bachelor of Arts & Social Sciences degree from National University of Singapore.

 

104

 

 

Evelyn Lim. Ms. Lim serves as our Group Financial Controller, a position she has held since consummation of the Business Combination on December 19, 2018. She is the Group Financial Controller of Reebonz since 2013. Her experience includes employment with Declout Limited, a Singapore Listed Company, as Senior Finance Manager from 2010 to 2013, Cavu Corp Pte. Ltd. as Finance Manager from 2006 to 2010 and Achieve Limited as Assistant Finance Manager from 2001 to 2006. Ms. Lim is a qualified Chartered Accountant by the Association of Chartered Certified Accountants and a fellow member with the Institute of Singapore Chartered Accountants. Ms. Lim holds a professional qualification from The Association of Chartered Certified Accountants.

 

Classification of Directors

 

Our articles provide that persons standing for election as directors at a duly constituted general meeting with requisite quorum shall be elected by an ordinary resolution of our shareholders, which requires the affirmative vote of a simple majority of the votes cast on the resolution by the shareholders entitled to vote who are present in person or by proxy at the meeting. Our articles further provide that our board of directors will be divided into three groups designated as Class I, Class II and Class III with as nearly equal a number of directors in each group as possible. Directors assigned to Class I shall initially serve until the first annual general meeting of shareholders following the effectiveness of our articles upon completion of this offering, or the Articles Effectiveness Date; directors assigned to Class II shall initially serve until the second annual general meeting of shareholders following the Articles Effectiveness Date; and directors assigned to Class III shall initially serve until the third annual general meeting of shareholders following the Articles Effectiveness Date. Commencing with the first annual general meeting of shareholders following the Articles Effectiveness Date, each director of each class the term of which shall then expire shall, upon the expiration of his or her term, be eligible for re-election at such annual general meeting to hold office for a three-year term and until such director’s successor has been duly elected.

 

Family Relationships

 

Mr. Daniel Lim, Reebonz’s Co-Founder, Chief Product Officer, is the brother of Mr. Samuel Lim, Reebonz’s Co-Founder, Chairman and Chief Executive Officer. There are no family relationships between any of the other executive officers and directors.

 

Independence of Directors

 

As a result of our ordinary shares being listed on NASDAQ following consummation of the business combination, we will adhere to the rules of NASDAQ in determining whether a director is independent. Our board of directors has consulted, and will consult, with our counsel to ensure that the board’s determinations are consistent with those rules and all relevant securities and other laws and regulations regarding the independence of directors. The NASDAQ listing standards define an “independent director” as a person, other than an executive officer of a company or any other individual having a relationship which, in the opinion of the issuer’s board of directors, would interfere with the exercise of independent judgment in carry